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aircraft:airbus_a320 [2017/03/06 05:22]
jf
aircraft:airbus_a320 [2018/07/20 18:04]
jh [Approach]
Line 1: Line 1:
-===== Airbus A320 =====+===== Airbus A320-214 =====
  
-{{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​700|}}+{{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​450|}}
  
-==== V Speeds and Ranges ====+===== V Speeds and Ranges ​=====
  
 **Speed Limits** **Speed Limits**
Line 39: Line 39:
  
 **Takeoff with Flaps 1** **Takeoff with Flaps 1**
-When Flaps 1 is selected for takeoff (1 + F), the flaps automatically ​retract ​to at 210 KIAS+When flap configuration ​1 is selected for takeoff ​flaps and slats are extended ​(1 + F), the configuration ​automatically ​changes ​to at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended.
  
 **Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3** **Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3**
-When Flaps 1 is selected , the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract ​to 0 at 210 KIAS.+When configuration ​1 is selected ​from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats)
  
 **Flaps Selection in Flight** **Flaps Selection in Flight**
-When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended.+When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended ​(CONF 1).
  
 ^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^ ^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^
Line 97: Line 97:
 **Taxi Speed - Maximum** **Taxi Speed - Maximum**
 When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn. When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn.
 +===== A320 Beginners Tutorial =====
 +
 +The Airbus A320 is a very complex modern airliner which is quite common on airports around the globe. Chances are high that you already flew with this aircraft in the past. The Aerofly simulation of this aircraft is very complex but due to the aircraft'​s automation it is very suitable for beginners as well.
 +
 +We split this tutorial into several parts, first we are going to do a short flight explaining just the essential things that you have to do in Aerofly to fly the A320 from one place to another. After that we are going to go into more detail about this aircraft to explore all the features that are offered.
 +
 +First we are going to do a very short flight from Sacramento to San Francisco. This flight only takes a few minutes and there aren't actually that many things we need to do fly this quick hop. So this first flight is clearly aimed at beginners and leaves out many things that a real pilot would need to do as well. We're just doing the bare minimum for now.
 +
 +We recommend setting all wind sliders to zero, removing all clouds and setting daytime for the beginner tutorial.
 +==== Selecting The Airbus A320 ====
 +
 +From the main menu of the Aerofly FS 2
 +  * Click the Aircraft button in the main menu
 +  * Use your scroll wheel to rotate through the aircraft list.
 +  * Stop at the A320 and click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.
 +
 +==== Selecting The Starting Point ====
 +
 +We are going to fly from Sacramento International to San Francisco International airport.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​main_menu_location.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +**Open The Location Dialog**
 +
 +From the main menu
 +
 +  * Click the Location button.
 +
 +You should now see a map around your current aircraft position. We now select the Sacramento Intl. airport as our new position. Select the runway 16R facing South. Here is how that is done:
 +
 +**Select Sacramento Intl On The Map**
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sacramento_on_map.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +In the location menu
 +
 +  * Point your mouse cursor at the map and use your scroll wheel to zoom in and out
 +  * Hold the mouse down and move the mouse to drag the map around
 +  * Find the San Francisco area and click on the Sacramento Intl airport
 +
 +**Hint** - You don't have to zoom in on the map to be able to select the correct runway.
 +
 +**Select Runway 16R**
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sacramento_runway_16r.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +Once you clicked on Sacramento an airport diagram will display.
 +
 +  * Click on the green aircraft on the runway 16R facing down.
 +  * Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.
 +
 +The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY16R and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.
 +
 +==== Setting Up The Flight Plan ====
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​main_menu_navigation.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +Now that the aircraft is now already placed on the correct departure runway it is quite easy to create the route.
 +
 +From the main menu
 +  * Click the Navigation button
 +
 +\\
 +
 +**Delete Old Flight Plan**
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​navigation_menu_delete_route.png?​220|}}
 +
 +If you have any previous route you have to delete it first.
 +
 +  * Click the route reset button in the top right corner.
 +
 +
 +**Select Sacramento As Starting Point**
 +
 +On the navigation menu map or in the right hand column click the Sacramento Intl airport.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sacramento_starting_point.jpg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sacramento_departure.png?​210|}}
 +
 +**Select Runway 16R**
 +
 +  * Click the departing aircraft symbol next to RWY 16 R
 +
 +**Select San Francisco Intl.**
 +
 +In the map area hold down your mouse button and move then move the mouse to drag the map. Move the map over to San Francisco, which is South-West (down and left) from the current position.
 +
 +Once you see San Francisco Intl. on the map click it.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sfo_plan.jpg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sfo_28r.png?​210|}}
 +
 +**Select Runway 28R for landing**
 +
 +In the right hand column
 +  * click the landing aircraft symbol for runway 28R.
 +
 +**Summary**
 +
 +We selected Sacramento, then runway 16R. After that we moved over to San Francisco and selected runway 18R. The route is now complete for our purposes. Click the back arrow to get back to the main menu.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_route_complete.jpg |}}
 +{{ :​wiki:​main_menu_start.jpg |}}
 +
 +==== Takeoff ====
 +
 +In the main menu click the Start button to begin the flight.
 +
 +**Before Takeoff Checks**
 +
 +You should now see the cockpit of the A320 and everything should be ready to go. Please compare the aircraft state that you have with the highlighted areas of the screenshot below. Please quickly verify the following items:
 +
 +  * The Display in front of you shows "​CLB"​ and "​NAV"​ in blue.
 +  * Flaps are set to "​1+F"​ as seen on the center display
 +  * The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item
 +  * In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (---*) and 12000 (give or take 2000ft) is shown in the altitude window.
 +
 +This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position!
 +
 +The aircraft should look like this now. If it doesn'​t even after repeated attempts please contact our support or visit the forums for help.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_takeoff_check.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Taking Off**
 +
 +The takeoff has to be flown manually.
 +
 +  * Advance your throttle input to full forward.
 +  * Use rudder to maintain the center line, very little inputs should be required for this.
 +
 +When the airspeed reaches the blue circle gently pull back on the elevator to lift the nose up. Continue gently pulling up until the green horizontal bar is centered, at about 18 degrees nose up.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_rotate.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Gear Up**
 +
 +   * Press the "​g"​ key on your keyboard or click the gear lever to retract the landing gear.
 +or
 +   * Click the gear lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse up to drag the gear lever up.
 +
 +**Autopilot On**
 +
 +Press the "​a"​ key on your keyboard or press the autopilot (AP1) button.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_gear_up_autopilot_on.jpg |}}
 +
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_lever_climb_flashing.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +==== Climb ====
 +
 +**LVR CLB Flashing**
 +
 +At about 1500 feet above the runway a white "LVR CLB" (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.
 +
 +**Reduce To Climb Thrust**
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_thrust_lever_climb.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +  * Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.
 +
 +**Note** - If the green text above sais "THR LVR" and "LVR CLB" is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.
 +
 +The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show "THR CLB".
 +
 +If you look at the thrust levers in the cockpit it is quite clear where you need to position your throttle input. The levers should snap to the climb "​CLB"​ detent and will remain there until we are literally seconds before touch down.
 +
 +
 +**Flap Retraction**
 +
 +Once the airspeed is above the green -S (slat retraction) speed we can safely retract the flaps and slats.
 +
 +  * Either hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever
 +or
 +  * Use your scroll wheel whilst pointing at the lever to retract set the flap lever to the forward position. You can also use the default key assignments for this (Shift + F) or your assigned inputs.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_flap_retraction.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Lean Back And Enjoy**
 +
 +The autopilot is flying now and we have a little break. The next thing we have to do will be just before we start descending. You can change the camera and look around for the time being. This flight isn't very long so don't play around for too long. About 6 minutes after lift off we already have to think about descending again ;-)
 +
 +==== Cruise ====
 +
 +The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000ft for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: "​SPEED",​ "ALT CRZ" and "​NAV"​ as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as "ALT CRZ" is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.
 +
 +
 +**Top Of Descent Arrow**
 +
 +A white arrow comes into view on the navigation display of the A320. This white arrow marks the point at which the descent starts, the so called top of descent point.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_top_of_descent.jpg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_altitude_knob.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +**Decrease Selected Altitude**
 +
 +For the upcoming descent we have to select a lower altitude for the autopilot.
 +
 +  * Move the mouse cursor over the altitude knob of the autopilot. Scroll down to decrease the selected altitude value to 2000 ft. Don't click or press anything at this point.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_altitude_knob_push.jpg?​350|}}
 +
 +**Start Descent**
 +
 +When the white arrow comes really close to our aircraft symbol you should initiate the descent. Unlike the Boeing 747 for example the Airbus A320 won't descent automatically.
 +
 +   * Click the altitude knob with the left mouse button to push it in.
 +
 +==== Descent ====
 +
 +The autopilot will command idle thrust in the descent and tries to match the magenta target speed range and the green altitude target by just pitching up and down. When too high the autopilot flies a bit faster and with the increased drag it can catch up to the profile.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_descent_ls.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Display The ILS**
 +
 +  * Click the "​LS"​ button in the glareshield to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.
 +
 +**Note** - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet.
 +
 +==== Approach ====
 +
 +Let the aircraft descent until you reach 5000 to 4000 feet. We are now going to prepare the approach into San Francisco. Luckily for this there is actually barely anything to do in the A320.
 +
 +At this point the ILS should be automatically tuned and you can see magenta arrows for the ILS localizer and glide slope deflections on the primary flight display in front of you as highlighted on the next screenshot.
 +
 +**Arm ILS Approach**
 +
 +On the autopilot panel click the approach button ("​APPR"​).
 +
 +**Arm Autobrake**
 +
 +Click the "​LO"​ button on the AUTO BRK (autobrake) panel.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_approach.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Approach Speed**
 +
 +
 +When passing the magenta "​D"​ point on the map the aircraft will start to decelerate to approach speed. In managed speed mode the speed will be kept high until you select more flaps. Watch the speed target of the autopilot on the primary flight display. It switches to 135 knots on the display. However the auto-thrust system will not allow you to fly slower than the green dot speed at this point. When you extend flaps further than the speed minimum is reduced to -S, -F and finally the approach speed.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_approach_speed.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Flaps 1**
 +
 +Let the aircraft decelerate to this green dot speed. Make sure that the airspeed is below the two amber bars that mark the maximum airspeed for the next flap. Then select Flaps 1.
 +
 +  * Press the default key command "​F"​ or any of your assigned control inputs for the flaps
 +or
 +  * Point at the flaps lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever to the first position
 +or
 +  * Use the mouse wheel whilst pointing at the flap lever to increase the flap setting.
 +
 +Now the speed is allowed to drop to the -S speed (slat retraction speed). If you wanted to retract the flaps for some reason you could do so safely because the speed is kept high enough.
 +
 +**Engage Second Autopilot**
 +
 +  * Click the AP2 button
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_autopilot2_flaps1.jpg |}}
 +
 +
 +**Localizer Capture**
 +
 +The autopilot will capture the localizer needle and steer us to the runway laterally. The primary flight display will show "LOC *" followed by "​LOC"​ in the top row. No action required.
 +
 +**Flaps 2**
 +
 +When your airspeed matches the -S speed you are slow enough for the next flap setting. As shown for the first stage of flap, use the mouse wheel over the flap lever or use the shortcut "​f"​ or other methods to increase flaps to two.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_localizer_capture.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Gear Down**
 +
 +When the glide slope diamond moves towards the center of the scale the autopilot will capture it because we armed the approach earlier. Now is a good time to select the gear down and help us decrease the speed further and get it to the -F, flap retraction speed in case of go-around.
 +
 +   * Click the gear lever
 +or
 +   * Use the mouse wheel over the gear lever
 +
 +or
 +   * Point at the gear lever and hold down the left mouse button and then move the mouse down to drag the lever
 +
 +or
 +   * Press any of your assigned control inputs for the gear (default key "​g"​)
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_gear_down.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Flaps 3, Flaps Full**
 +
 +When the airspeed dropped to the -F speed you can select the flaps from 2 to full.
 +
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_landing_checklist.jpg?​250|}}
 +
 +**Landing Checklist**
 +
 +Let's quickly check that we didn't forget anything. The A320 has a nice built in checklist for this. Check that there are no blue items remaining on that list.
 +
 +
 +The aircraft is now prepared for a fully automatic landing.
 +
 +**Tip** - If you want to return to this state you can exit to the main menu, then open the location dialog and click the yellow aircraft symbol on the map approaching San Francisco Runway 28R.
 +
 +**Flare**
 +
 +The autopilot will start the flare at about 30ft above the runway and will try to touch down gently. At 10 feet you should retard your throttle to idle.
 +
 +**Landed, Disengage Autopilots**
 +
 +The autobrake slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway. ​
 +
 +  * Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.
 +  * To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the autobrake.
 +
 +Congratulations,​ you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco!
 +
 +
  
  
aircraft/airbus_a320.txt ยท Last modified: 2019/07/01 14:54 by jh