User Tools

Site Tools


aircraft:airbus_a320

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
aircraft:airbus_a320 [2017/11/29 15:39]
jf
aircraft:airbus_a320 [2019/06/25 18:03] (current)
jh [A320 Advanced Tutorial]
Line 1: Line 1:
 ===== Airbus A320-214 ===== ===== Airbus A320-214 =====
  
-{{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​700|}}+{{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​450|}}
  
-===== V Speeds and Ranges ===== 
- 
-**Speed Limits** 
- 
-|Vmo  |Max Operating Speed |350 KIAS        | 
-|Mmo  |Max Operating Speed |.82M            | 
-|Vlo  |Max Gear Extension ​ |250 KIAS        | 
-|Vlo  |Max Gear Retraction |220 KIAS        | 
-|Vle  |Max Gear Extended ​  |280 KIAS / .67M | 
- 
-^Turbulence Penetration ^At or Above 20,000 FT ^Below 20,000 FT ^  
-^A320                   |275 KIAS / .76M       |250 KIAS        | 
- 
-^Max Flaps / Slats (Vfe)                                     ​^^^^^^^ 
-^Model ^Position ^1        ^1+F      ^2        ^3        ^Full     ^ 
-^A320  |Vfe      |230 KIAS |215 KIAS |200 KIAS |185 KIAS |177 KIAS | 
- 
-**Speeds** 
- 
-**Cockpit Window Open Speed** 
-Maximum - 200 KIAS 
- 
-^Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/​Mach) ​   ^^^^^^^^^ 
-^Speed ​ ^Pressure Altitude (1000 FT)            ^^^^^^^^ 
-^       ​|SL ​ |10.0 |16.0 |20.0 |24.0 |28.0 |30.0 |39.0 | 
-^*Va    |248 |250  |260  |270  |280  |290  |295  |.78  | 
- 
-^Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KAIS) ​               ^^^^^^ 
-^Config ​  ​^1 ​      ​^1+F ​   ^2       ​^3 ​              ​^FULL ​  ​^ ​ 
-^Vfe      |230     ​|215 ​   |200     ​|185 ​            ​|177 ​   | 
-^Slats ​   |18      |18     ​|22 ​     |22              |27     | 
-^Flaps ​   |0       ​|10 ​    ​|15 ​     |20              |40     | 
-^Remarks ​ |Initial |Takeoff|Takeoff/​|Takeoff/​Approach|Landing| 
-^         ​|Approach| ​      ​|Approach|Landing ​        ​| ​      | 
- 
-**Takeoff with Flaps 1** 
-When flap configuration 1 is selected for takeoff flaps and slats are extended (1 + F), the configuration automatically changes to 1 at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended. 
- 
-**Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3** 
-When configuration 1 is selected from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats) 
- 
-**Flaps Selection in Flight** 
-When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended (CONF 1). 
- 
-^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^ 
-^Retraction (Vlo)         ​|220 ​                   | 
-^Extension (Vlo)          |250                    | 
-^Extended (Vle)           |280 / .67              | 
-^Maximum Tire Speed       |195 Knots Groundspeed ​ | 
- 
-^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/​Mmo ​      ^^^ 
-^Speed ​   ^Pressure Altitude ​                    ^^ 
-^         ​|SL-25,​000 ​     |25,000 - 39,​000 ​       | 
-^Vmo/​Mmo ​ |350            |.82                    | 
- 
-**Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca** 
-Vmca - 119 KIAS 
- 
-**Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg** 
-Vmcg - 114 KIAS 
- 
-^Operating Speeds (KIAS/​MACH) ​                    ^^ 
-^Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative) ​    |ECON CLIMB    | 
-^Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative) ​ |              | 
-^FL290 and Above                    |.78           | 
-^10,000 FT to FL290                 ​|290 ​          | 
-^Best Climb Rate                    |280           | 
-^Best Climb Angle                   ​|220 ​          | 
-^Optimum ​ Cruise (ECON) ​            |Cost Index=35 | 
-^Standard Cruise ​                   |              | 
-^FL310 and Above                    |.80           | 
-^10,00 FT to FS310                  |300           | 
-^Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative) ​  |ECON DES      | 
-^Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative)|.78 ​          | 
-^10,000 FT and Above                |280           | 
- 
-**Stall Speeds** 
- 
-^Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only^^^^^^^ 
-^Gross Weight^Flap Position ​                              ​^^^^^^ 
-^(1,000 Lbs)    ^0      ^1      ^1+F    ^2      ^3     ​^FULL ​  ^ 
-^170            |179    |140    |134    |125    |124   ​|121 ​   | 
-^160            |170    |136    |130    |120    |119   ​|117 ​   | 
-^150            |161    |132    |125    |116    |115   ​|113 ​   | 
-^140            |154    |127    |119    |112    |111   ​|109 ​   | 
-^130            |144    |121    |115    |108    |107   ​|105 ​   | 
-^120            |138    |116    |110    |104    |103   ​|101 ​   | 
-^110            |132    |111    |105    |99     ​|98 ​   |96     | 
-^100            |126    |106    |100    |95     ​|94 ​   |92     | 
-^90             ​|119 ​   |100    |95     ​|90 ​    ​|89 ​   |87     | 
-^80             ​|114 ​   |95     ​|90 ​    ​|85 ​    ​|84 ​   |82     | 
- 
-**Taxi Speed - Maximum** 
-When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn. 
 ===== A320 Beginners Tutorial ===== ===== A320 Beginners Tutorial =====
  
Line 148: Line 54:
   * Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.   * Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.
  
-The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY16R ​and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.+The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY 16R and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.
  
 ==== Setting Up The Flight Plan ==== ==== Setting Up The Flight Plan ====
Line 215: Line 121:
   * Flaps are set to "​1+F"​ as seen on the center display   * Flaps are set to "​1+F"​ as seen on the center display
   * The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item   * The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item
-  * In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (---*) and 12000 (give or take 2000ft) is shown in the altitude window.+  * In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (---*) and 12000 (give or take 2000 ft) is shown in the altitude window.
  
 This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position! This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position!
Line 236: Line 142:
 **Gear Up** **Gear Up**
  
-Press the "​g"​ key on your keyboard or click the gear lever to retract the landing gear.+   ​* ​Press the "​g"​ key on your keyboard or click the gear lever to retract the landing gear
 +or 
 +   * Click the gear lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse up to drag the gear lever up.
  
 **Autopilot On** **Autopilot On**
Line 251: Line 159:
 **LVR CLB Flashing** **LVR CLB Flashing**
  
-At about 1500 feet above the runway a white "LVR CLB" (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.+At about 1000 feet above the runway a white "LVR CLB" (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.
  
 **Reduce To Climb Thrust** **Reduce To Climb Thrust**
Line 259: Line 167:
   * Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.   * Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.
  
-**Note** - If the green text above sais "THR LVR" and "LVR CLB" is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.+**Note** - If the green text above says "THR LVR" and "LVR CLB" is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.
  
 The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show "THR CLB". The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show "THR CLB".
  
-If you look at the thrust levers in the cockpit ​is is quite clear where you need to position your throttle input. The levers should snap to the climb "​CLB"​ detent and will remain there until we are literally seconds before touch down.+If you look at the thrust levers in the cockpit ​it is quite clear where you need to position your throttle input. The levers should snap to the climb "​CLB"​ detent and will remain there until we are literally seconds before touch down.
  
  
Line 270: Line 178:
 Once the airspeed is above the green -S (slat retraction) speed we can safely retract the flaps and slats. Once the airspeed is above the green -S (slat retraction) speed we can safely retract the flaps and slats.
  
-  * Either ​right click the flap lever or use your scroll wheel whilst pointing at the lever to retract set the flap lever to the forward position. You can also use the default key assignments for this (Shift + F) or your assigned inputs.+  * Either ​hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever 
 +or 
 +  * Use your scroll wheel whilst pointing at the lever to retract set the flap lever to the forward position. You can also use the default key assignments for this (Shift + F) or your assigned inputs.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_flap_retraction.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_flap_retraction.jpg |}}
Line 280: Line 190:
 ==== Cruise ==== ==== Cruise ====
  
-The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000ft ​for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: "​SPEED",​ "ALT CRZ" and "​NAV"​ as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as "ALT CRZ" is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.+The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000 ft for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: "​SPEED",​ "ALT CRZ" and "​NAV"​ as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as "ALT CRZ" is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.
  
  
Line 307: Line 217:
 ==== Descent ==== ==== Descent ====
  
-The autopilot will command idle thrust in the descent and tries to match the magenta target speed range and the green altitude target by just pitching up and down. If to high the autopilot flies a bit faster and with the increased drag it can catch up to the profile.+The autopilot will command idle thrust in the descent and tries to match the magenta target speed range and the green altitude target by just pitching up and down. When too high the autopilot flies a bit faster and with the increased drag it can catch up to the profile.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_descent_ls.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_descent_ls.jpg |}}
Line 313: Line 223:
 **Display The ILS** **Display The ILS**
  
-  * Click the "​LS"​ button in the glareshield ​to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.+  * Click the "​LS"​ button in the glare shield ​to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.
  
 **Note** - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet. **Note** - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet.
Line 319: Line 229:
 ==== Approach ==== ==== Approach ====
  
-Let the aircraft descent until you reach 5000 to 4000 feet. We are now going to prepare the approach into San Francisco. Luckily for this there actually ​is barely anything to do in the A320.+Let the aircraft descent until you reach 5000 to 4000 feet. We are now going to prepare the approach into San Francisco. Luckily for this there is actually ​barely anything to do in the A320.
  
 At this point the ILS should be automatically tuned and you can see magenta arrows for the ILS localizer and glide slope deflections on the primary flight display in front of you as highlighted on the next screenshot. At this point the ILS should be automatically tuned and you can see magenta arrows for the ILS localizer and glide slope deflections on the primary flight display in front of you as highlighted on the next screenshot.
Line 327: Line 237:
 On the autopilot panel click the approach button ("​APPR"​). On the autopilot panel click the approach button ("​APPR"​).
  
-**Arm Autobrake**+**Arm Auto-Brake**
  
-Click the "​LO"​ button on the AUTO BRK (autobrake) panel.+Click the "​LO"​ button on the AUTO BRK (auto-brake) panel.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_approach.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_approach.jpg |}}
Line 336: Line 246:
  
  
-When passing the magenta "​D"​ point on the map the aircraft will start to decelerate to approach speed. In managed speed mode the speed will be kept high until you select more flaps. Watch the speed target of the autopilot on the primary flight display. It switches to 135 knots on the display. However the auto-thrust system will keep not allow you to fly slower than the green dot speed at this point. When you extend flaps further than the speed minimum is reduced to -S, -F and finally the approach speed.+When passing the magenta "​D"​ point on the map the aircraft will start to decelerate to approach speed. In managed speed mode the speed will be kept high until you select more flaps. Watch the speed target of the autopilot on the primary flight display. It switches to 135 knots on the display. However the auto-thrust system will not allow you to fly slower than the green dot speed at this point. When you extend flaps further than the speed minimum is reduced to -S, -F and finally the approach speed.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_approach_speed.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_approach_speed.jpg |}}
Line 344: Line 254:
 Let the aircraft decelerate to this green dot speed. Make sure that the airspeed is below the two amber bars that mark the maximum airspeed for the next flap. Then select Flaps 1. Let the aircraft decelerate to this green dot speed. Make sure that the airspeed is below the two amber bars that mark the maximum airspeed for the next flap. Then select Flaps 1.
  
-  * Click the flaps lever or press the default key command "​F"​. You can also use the mouse wheel whilst pointing at the flap lever to increase the flap setting.+  * Press the default key command "​F" ​or any of your assigned control inputs for the flaps 
 +or 
 +  * Point at the flaps lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever to the first position 
 +or 
 +  * Use the mouse wheel whilst pointing at the flap lever to increase the flap setting.
  
 Now the speed is allowed to drop to the -S speed (slat retraction speed). If you wanted to retract the flaps for some reason you could do so safely because the speed is kept high enough. Now the speed is allowed to drop to the -S speed (slat retraction speed). If you wanted to retract the flaps for some reason you could do so safely because the speed is kept high enough.
Line 361: Line 275:
 **Flaps 2** **Flaps 2**
  
-When your airspeed matches the -S speed you are slow enough for the next flap setting. As shown for the first stage of flap, click the flap lever or use other methods to increase flaps to two.+When your airspeed matches the -S speed you are slow enough for the next flap setting. As shown for the first stage of flap, use the mouse wheel over the flap lever or use the shortcut "​f"​ or other methods to increase flaps to two.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_localizer_capture.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_localizer_capture.jpg |}}
Line 367: Line 281:
 **Gear Down** **Gear Down**
  
-When the glide slop diamond moves towards the center the autopilot will capture it. Now is a good time to select the gear down and help us decrease the speed further and get it to the -F, flap retraction speed in case of go-around.+When the glide slope diamond moves towards the center ​of the scale the autopilot will capture it because we armed the approach earlier. Now is a good time to select the gear down and help us decrease the speed further and get it to the -F, flap retraction speed in case of go-around. 
 + 
 +   * Click the gear lever 
 +or 
 +   * Use the mouse wheel over the gear lever 
 + 
 +or 
 +   * Point at the gear lever and hold down the left mouse button and then move the mouse down to drag the lever 
 + 
 +or 
 +   * Press any of your assigned control inputs for the gear (default key "​g"​)
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_gear_down.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_gear_down.jpg |}}
Line 389: Line 313:
 **Flare** **Flare**
  
-The autopilot will start the flare at about 30ft above the runway. At 10 feet you should retard your throttle to idle.+The autopilot will start the flare at about 30 ft above the runway ​and will try to touch down gently. At ten feet you should retard your throttle to idle.
  
 **Landed, Disengage Autopilots** **Landed, Disengage Autopilots**
  
-The autobrake ​slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway. ​+The auto-brake ​slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway. ​
  
   * Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.   * Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.
-  * To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the autobrake.+  * To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the auto-brake.
  
 Congratulations,​ you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco! Congratulations,​ you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco!
Line 402: Line 326:
  
  
 +===== A320 Advanced Tutorial =====
 +
 +We just experienced how easy it can be to fly an airliner with all the automation helping us. But we sort of skipped the whole procedures for setting up a flight plan with the on-board computers (MCDU), preparing the aircraft for takeoff and all the checklists and the powerful autoflight (autopilot+auto-thrust) system.
 +
 +==== A320 Autopilot Tutorial ====
 +
 +The Airbus A320 autopilot in the Aerofly FS 2 is an realistic simulation of the real world autopilot. Therefor you can also refer to A320 autopilot videos, other descriptions or tutorials or the flight crew operating manual (FCOM) if you need to. We're going to provide an overview of what the autopilot buttons do.
 +
 +The flight control unit (FCU) is the interface between the pilots and the flight guidance system (autopilot, flight management). It consists of four knobs that can be turned, pulled out and pushed.
 +
 +=== Managed/​Selected Modes ===
 +
 +Generally speaking, if a knob is **pushed in** the control is handed over to the automation in the **managed mode**. The field becomes dashed and a dot appears next to it (triple dash and a dot). Then the autopilot will use the flight plan as a reference.
 +
 +If a knob is **pulled out** we gain manual control and can change the target values ourselves in the **selected mode**. If we pull the speed knob for example the speed window opens with the current airspeed and we can then **turn the knob to change the selected speed**.
 +
 +=== Speed-Knob ===
 +
 +Push the speed knob to use the route speed as computed by the flight management computers. The speed will automatically change throughout the flight and the autopilot will fly the aircraft accordingly. When there is no flight plan it won't do anything (unless you're already on approach).
 +
 +Pull the speed knob to set the autopilot target airspeed manually. Turn the knob to change the selected speed.
 +
 +Depending on the vertical mode the autopilot is either pitching the airplane up or down to keep the target speed or it is using the auto thrust to keep the speed.
 +
 +
 +=== Heading-Knob ===
 +
 +Push the heading knob in to arm and capture the flight route laterally. This allows the aircraft to turn left and right according to the programmed flight plan and steer towards the destination on its own in NAV mode. When there is no flight plan nearby the autopilot will keep flying on the selected heading, only when you intercept the flight plan will it capture the flight plan.
 +
 +Pull the heading knob to fly a selected heading in HDG mode. Turn the knob left or right to change the target heading, the aircraft will turn towards that left or right.
 +
 +
 +=== Altitude-Knob ===
 +
 +Turn the knob to set a new target altitude that the autopilot is allowed to fly to.
 +
 +Pushing the altitude knob performs a managed climb (CLB) or descent (DES) towards the selected altitude when you have a route programmed. It does nothing if there is no route nearby and it only works if you are already flying along the route in NAV mode. With this mode the autopilot will automatically level off at altitude constraints if the flight plan requires that.
 +
 +Pulling the altitude knob tells the autopilot to immediately climb or descent to the selected altitude without any restrictions in open climb (OP CLB) or open descent (OP DES) modes.
 +
 +
 +=== Vertical-Speed-Knob ===
 +
 +Pushing the vertical speed knob is a bit different, as it doesn'​t put the autopilot into a managed mode. If you push the vertical speed knob the autopilot will immediately level off with vertical speed mode (VS) and maintain 0 ft/min.
 +
 +Pulling the vertical speed knob also engages the vertical speed mode (VS) but it keeps the vertical speed at time of engagement unless you change the target by turning the knob.
 +
 +
 +=== Interaction Between Vertical Mode and Auto-Thrust ===
 +
 +If you select a vertical mode like CLB or OP CLB by pushing or pulling the altitude knob the auto-thrust system will increase the engine thrust to climb thrust (THR CLB) and maintain that. The autopilot will then pitch up to keep the speed target. This means the autopilot is controlling the speed with the climb angle now and the engines are just producing the maximum climb thrust.
 +
 +When you reach the target altitude the autopilot will capture the altitude (ALT*) and then maintain it (ALT). When this happens the auto-thrust switches back to SPEED mode and change the engine thrust to maintain the speed target again. Now the auto-thrust controls the speed again and the autopilot maintains the altitude.
 +
 +A similar thing happens during the descent. If you have DES or OP DES engaged the auto thrust will retard the thrust to idle (THR IDLE) and the autopilot pitches down to keep the airspeed target. So again the autopilot is controlling the speed and the auto-thrust is just keeping a fixed thrust value, in this case idle.
 +Once the aircraft has descended to the target altitude the auto-thrust controls the speed again and the autopilot switches to altitude hold.
 +
 +**Note** - This works pretty well if you have the autopilot and auto-thrust engaged. If you control either of them manually you have to be careful because you as a pilot then need to make sure that the airspeed is kept within limits. Imaging the engines going to full throttle but you don't pull up to keep the airspeed. Or the engines go to idle and stay there but you don't pitch the nose down. This can get out of hand quickly. This is why most airlines require the pilots to either use both: AP and A/THR or neither. Or at least make sure that for landing the auto-thrust is indeed controlling speed and no longer keeping idle thrust.
 +
 +=== EXPED button ===
 +
 +The expedite button when pressed triggers a rapid climb or descent to the target altitude. For the climb the autopilot pitches up until the speed gets pretty low (green dot speed) and for the descent it pitches down to almost the maximum speed. This button is rarely used in real life but if you need to descent quickly, this is the button you want to use. That and full airbrakes.
 +
 +=== LOC and APPR ===
 +
 +The localizer button (LOC) arms the localizer capture. If there is an ILS localizer signal the autopilot will capture the runway localizer and fly towards the runway. It only steers left and right for this, it doesn'​t change the vertical mode.
 +
 +The approach button (APPR) does the same but also arms the glide slope capture. After capturing the localizer (LOC* or LOC), when the glide slope is intercepted,​ the autopilot will capture it (G/S*) as well and automatically descent to the runway threshold in G/S mode. When LOC and G/S are both captured a fully automatic landing can be performed if the runway allows for that.
 +
 +At 400 feet above ground the autopilot will switch to LAND mode and no buttons on the flight control unit (FCU) will change that. The only way to leave this mode is to go around or land.
 +At 50 ft the autopilot switches from LAND to FLARE. It will automatically arrest the sink rate, retard the thrust to idle, touch down and roll out. Between twenty and ten feet you need to retard the thrust levers to idle because the auto-spoilers and auto-brakes only engage when the levers are at idle or in reverse.
 +
 +=== Speed/Mach Toggle ===
 +
 +At high altitudes the Mach number (speed divided by speed of sound) becomes the relevant speed limit for the aircraft. E.g. the A320 can only fly Mach 0.85 (85% the speed of sound). At such high speeds the sound barrier starts to have an effect and creates a lot of drag. For this reason it becomes more economical to fly at lower indicated airspeeds at a fixed economical mach number (ECON Mach). At the crossover altitude the autopilot therefor automatically transitions from a speed target to a Mach target. SPEED becomes MACH.
 +
 +The button SPD/MACH allows you to manually switch between the Mach and speed reference after pulling out the speed knob for the selected speed mode.
 +
 +
 +=== Heading/​Track Vertical-Speed/​Flight-Path-Angle Toggle ===
 +
 +The HDG/TRK VS/FPA button switches between a heading and vertical speed reference (where the nose is pointing at and how fast you climb or descent) over to a track and flight path angle reference (where you're actually flying with the wind and at what angle you climb or descent).
 +
 +The TRK+FPA mode is useful during an approach where you have a bit of crosswind and instead of calculating how much you need to point the nose into the wind to fly where you want to, you just tell the autopilot where you want to fly to in track mode. It automatically compensates the cross wind and keeps the aircraft flying in the same direction.
 +
 +
 +=== Metric Altitude Toggle ===
 +
 +The METRIC ALT button displays the selected altitude in meters on the primary flight display (PFD) as well as on the bottom of the lower ECAM.
 +In some countries like Russia and China the air traffic control (ATC) uses metric altitudes. So you could be given a clearance to climb to 3000 meters and thanks to the metric altitude display you don't have to guess how many feet that is.
 +
 +=== 100/1000 ft Ring ===
 +
 +Behind the altitude knob there is a ring that can be set to the left or right to change the increments of the altitude selector between 100 and 1000 feet.
 +
 +
 +==== A320 MCDU Tutorial ====
 +
 +---
 +===== V Speeds and Ranges =====
 +
 +**Speed Limits**
 +
 +|Vmo  |Max Operating Speed |350 KIAS        |
 +|Mmo  |Max Operating Speed |.82M            |
 +|Vlo  |Max Gear Extension ​ |250 KIAS        |
 +|Vlo  |Max Gear Retraction |220 KIAS        |
 +|Vle  |Max Gear Extended ​  |280 KIAS / .67M |
 +
 +^Turbulence Penetration ^At or Above 20,000 FT ^Below 20,000 FT ^ 
 +^A320                   |275 KIAS / .76M       |250 KIAS        |
 +
 +^Max Flaps / Slats (Vfe)                                     ​^^^^^^^
 +^Model ^Position ^1        ^1+F      ^2        ^3        ^Full     ^
 +^A320  |Vfe      |230 KIAS |215 KIAS |200 KIAS |185 KIAS |177 KIAS |
 +
 +**Speeds**
 +
 +**Cockpit Window Open Speed**
 +Maximum - 200 KIAS
 +
 +^Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/​Mach) ​   ^^^^^^^^^
 +^Speed ​ ^Pressure Altitude (1000 FT)            ^^^^^^^^
 +^       ​|SL ​ |10.0 |16.0 |20.0 |24.0 |28.0 |30.0 |39.0 |
 +^*Va    |248 |250  |260  |270  |280  |290  |295  |.78  |
 +
 +^Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KAIS) ​               ^^^^^^
 +^Config ​  ​^1 ​      ​^1+F ​   ^2       ​^3 ​              ​^FULL ​  ​^ ​
 +^Vfe      |230     ​|215 ​   |200     ​|185 ​            ​|177 ​   |
 +^Slats ​   |18      |18     ​|22 ​     |22              |27     |
 +^Flaps ​   |0       ​|10 ​    ​|15 ​     |20              |40     |
 +^Remarks ​ |Initial |Takeoff|Takeoff/​|Takeoff/​Approach|Landing|
 +^         ​|Approach| ​      ​|Approach|Landing ​        ​| ​      |
 +
 +**Takeoff with Flaps 1**
 +When flap configuration 1 is selected for takeoff flaps and slats are extended (1 + F), the configuration automatically changes to 1 at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended.
 +
 +**Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3**
 +When configuration 1 is selected from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats)
 +
 +**Flaps Selection in Flight**
 +When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended (CONF 1).
 +
 +^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^
 +^Retraction (Vlo)         ​|220 ​                   |
 +^Extension (Vlo)          |250                    |
 +^Extended (Vle)           |280 / .67              |
 +^Maximum Tire Speed       |195 Knots Groundspeed ​ |
 +
 +^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/​Mmo ​      ^^^
 +^Speed ​   ^Pressure Altitude ​                    ^^
 +^         ​|SL-25,​000 ​     |25,000 - 39,​000 ​       |
 +^Vmo/​Mmo ​ |350            |.82                    |
 +
 +**Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca**
 +Vmca - 119 KIAS
 +
 +**Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg**
 +Vmcg - 114 KIAS
 +
 +^Operating Speeds (KIAS/​MACH) ​                    ^^
 +^Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative) ​    |ECON CLIMB    |
 +^Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative) ​ |              |
 +^FL290 and Above                    |.78           |
 +^10,000 FT to FL290                 ​|290 ​          |
 +^Best Climb Rate                    |280           |
 +^Best Climb Angle                   ​|220 ​          |
 +^Optimum ​ Cruise (ECON) ​            |Cost Index=35 |
 +^Standard Cruise ​                   |              |
 +^FL310 and Above                    |.80           |
 +^10,00 FT to FS310                  |300           |
 +^Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative) ​  |ECON DES      |
 +^Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative)|.78 ​          |
 +^10,000 FT and Above                |280           |
 +
 +**Stall Speeds**
 +
 +^Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only^^^^^^^
 +^Gross Weight^Flap Position ​                              ​^^^^^^
 +^(1,000 Lbs)    ^0      ^1      ^1+F    ^2      ^3     ​^FULL ​  ^
 +^170            |179    |140    |134    |125    |124   ​|121 ​   |
 +^160            |170    |136    |130    |120    |119   ​|117 ​   |
 +^150            |161    |132    |125    |116    |115   ​|113 ​   |
 +^140            |154    |127    |119    |112    |111   ​|109 ​   |
 +^130            |144    |121    |115    |108    |107   ​|105 ​   |
 +^120            |138    |116    |110    |104    |103   ​|101 ​   |
 +^110            |132    |111    |105    |99     ​|98 ​   |96     |
 +^100            |126    |106    |100    |95     ​|94 ​   |92     |
 +^90             ​|119 ​   |100    |95     ​|90 ​    ​|89 ​   |87     |
 +^80             ​|114 ​   |95     ​|90 ​    ​|85 ​    ​|84 ​   |82     |
 +
 +**Taxi Speed - Maximum**
 +When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn.
  
aircraft/airbus_a320.1511966378.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/11/29 15:39 by jf