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aircraft:airbus_a320 [2018/07/20 18:04]
jh [Approach]
aircraft:airbus_a320 [2019/07/01 14:54] (current)
jh ↷ Page name changed from aircraft:airbus_a320_214 to aircraft:airbus_a320
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 {{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​450|}} {{:​wiki:​airbusa320.jpg?​450|}}
  
-===== V Speeds and Ranges ===== 
- 
-**Speed Limits** 
- 
-|Vmo  |Max Operating Speed |350 KIAS        | 
-|Mmo  |Max Operating Speed |.82M            | 
-|Vlo  |Max Gear Extension ​ |250 KIAS        | 
-|Vlo  |Max Gear Retraction |220 KIAS        | 
-|Vle  |Max Gear Extended ​  |280 KIAS / .67M | 
- 
-^Turbulence Penetration ^At or Above 20,000 FT ^Below 20,000 FT ^  
-^A320                   |275 KIAS / .76M       |250 KIAS        | 
- 
-^Max Flaps / Slats (Vfe)                                     ​^^^^^^^ 
-^Model ^Position ^1        ^1+F      ^2        ^3        ^Full     ^ 
-^A320  |Vfe      |230 KIAS |215 KIAS |200 KIAS |185 KIAS |177 KIAS | 
- 
-**Speeds** 
- 
-**Cockpit Window Open Speed** 
-Maximum - 200 KIAS 
- 
-^Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/​Mach) ​   ^^^^^^^^^ 
-^Speed ​ ^Pressure Altitude (1000 FT)            ^^^^^^^^ 
-^       ​|SL ​ |10.0 |16.0 |20.0 |24.0 |28.0 |30.0 |39.0 | 
-^*Va    |248 |250  |260  |270  |280  |290  |295  |.78  | 
- 
-^Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KAIS) ​               ^^^^^^ 
-^Config ​  ​^1 ​      ​^1+F ​   ^2       ​^3 ​              ​^FULL ​  ​^ ​ 
-^Vfe      |230     ​|215 ​   |200     ​|185 ​            ​|177 ​   | 
-^Slats ​   |18      |18     ​|22 ​     |22              |27     | 
-^Flaps ​   |0       ​|10 ​    ​|15 ​     |20              |40     | 
-^Remarks ​ |Initial |Takeoff|Takeoff/​|Takeoff/​Approach|Landing| 
-^         ​|Approach| ​      ​|Approach|Landing ​        ​| ​      | 
- 
-**Takeoff with Flaps 1** 
-When flap configuration 1 is selected for takeoff flaps and slats are extended (1 + F), the configuration automatically changes to 1 at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended. 
- 
-**Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3** 
-When configuration 1 is selected from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats) 
- 
-**Flaps Selection in Flight** 
-When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended (CONF 1). 
- 
-^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^ 
-^Retraction (Vlo)         ​|220 ​                   | 
-^Extension (Vlo)          |250                    | 
-^Extended (Vle)           |280 / .67              | 
-^Maximum Tire Speed       |195 Knots Groundspeed ​ | 
- 
-^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/​Mmo ​      ^^^ 
-^Speed ​   ^Pressure Altitude ​                    ^^ 
-^         ​|SL-25,​000 ​     |25,000 - 39,​000 ​       | 
-^Vmo/​Mmo ​ |350            |.82                    | 
- 
-**Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca** 
-Vmca - 119 KIAS 
- 
-**Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg** 
-Vmcg - 114 KIAS 
- 
-^Operating Speeds (KIAS/​MACH) ​                    ^^ 
-^Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative) ​    |ECON CLIMB    | 
-^Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative) ​ |              | 
-^FL290 and Above                    |.78           | 
-^10,000 FT to FL290                 ​|290 ​          | 
-^Best Climb Rate                    |280           | 
-^Best Climb Angle                   ​|220 ​          | 
-^Optimum ​ Cruise (ECON) ​            |Cost Index=35 | 
-^Standard Cruise ​                   |              | 
-^FL310 and Above                    |.80           | 
-^10,00 FT to FS310                  |300           | 
-^Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative) ​  |ECON DES      | 
-^Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative)|.78 ​          | 
-^10,000 FT and Above                |280           | 
- 
-**Stall Speeds** 
- 
-^Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only^^^^^^^ 
-^Gross Weight^Flap Position ​                              ​^^^^^^ 
-^(1,000 Lbs)    ^0      ^1      ^1+F    ^2      ^3     ​^FULL ​  ^ 
-^170            |179    |140    |134    |125    |124   ​|121 ​   | 
-^160            |170    |136    |130    |120    |119   ​|117 ​   | 
-^150            |161    |132    |125    |116    |115   ​|113 ​   | 
-^140            |154    |127    |119    |112    |111   ​|109 ​   | 
-^130            |144    |121    |115    |108    |107   ​|105 ​   | 
-^120            |138    |116    |110    |104    |103   ​|101 ​   | 
-^110            |132    |111    |105    |99     ​|98 ​   |96     | 
-^100            |126    |106    |100    |95     ​|94 ​   |92     | 
-^90             ​|119 ​   |100    |95     ​|90 ​    ​|89 ​   |87     | 
-^80             ​|114 ​   |95     ​|90 ​    ​|85 ​    ​|84 ​   |82     | 
- 
-**Taxi Speed - Maximum** 
-When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn. 
 ===== A320 Beginners Tutorial ===== ===== A320 Beginners Tutorial =====
  
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   * Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.   * Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.
  
-The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY16R ​and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.+The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY 16R and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.
  
 ==== Setting Up The Flight Plan ==== ==== Setting Up The Flight Plan ====
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   * Flaps are set to "​1+F"​ as seen on the center display   * Flaps are set to "​1+F"​ as seen on the center display
   * The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item   * The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item
-  * In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (---*) and 12000 (give or take 2000ft) is shown in the altitude window.+  * In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (---*) and 12000 (give or take 2000 ft) is shown in the altitude window.
  
 This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position! This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position!
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 **LVR CLB Flashing** **LVR CLB Flashing**
  
-At about 1500 feet above the runway a white "LVR CLB" (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.+At about 1000 feet above the runway a white "LVR CLB" (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.
  
 **Reduce To Climb Thrust** **Reduce To Climb Thrust**
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   * Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.   * Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.
  
-**Note** - If the green text above sais "THR LVR" and "LVR CLB" is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.+**Note** - If the green text above says "THR LVR" and "LVR CLB" is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.
  
 The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show "THR CLB". The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show "THR CLB".
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 ==== Cruise ==== ==== Cruise ====
  
-The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000ft ​for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: "​SPEED",​ "ALT CRZ" and "​NAV"​ as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as "ALT CRZ" is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.+The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000 ft for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: "​SPEED",​ "ALT CRZ" and "​NAV"​ as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as "ALT CRZ" is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.
  
  
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 **Display The ILS** **Display The ILS**
  
-  * Click the "​LS"​ button in the glareshield ​to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.+  * Click the "​LS"​ button in the glare shield ​to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.
  
 **Note** - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet. **Note** - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet.
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 On the autopilot panel click the approach button ("​APPR"​). On the autopilot panel click the approach button ("​APPR"​).
  
-**Arm Autobrake**+**Arm Auto-Brake**
  
-Click the "​LO"​ button on the AUTO BRK (autobrake) panel.+Click the "​LO"​ button on the AUTO BRK (auto-brake) panel.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_approach.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_approach.jpg |}}
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 **Flare** **Flare**
  
-The autopilot will start the flare at about 30ft above the runway and will try to touch down gently. At 10 feet you should retard your throttle to idle.+The autopilot will start the flare at about 30 ft above the runway and will try to touch down gently. At ten feet you should retard your throttle to idle.
  
 **Landed, Disengage Autopilots** **Landed, Disengage Autopilots**
  
-The autobrake ​slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway. ​+The auto-brake ​slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway. ​
  
   * Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.   * Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.
-  * To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the autobrake.+  * To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the auto-brake.
  
 Congratulations,​ you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco! Congratulations,​ you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco!
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 +===== A320 Advanced Tutorial =====
 +
 +We just experienced how easy it can be to fly an airliner with all the automation helping us. But we sort of skipped the whole procedures for setting up a flight plan with the on-board computers (MCDU), preparing the aircraft for takeoff and all the checklists and the powerful auto-flight (autopilot+auto-thrust) system.
 +
 +==== A320 Autopilot Introduction ====
 +
 +The Airbus A320 autopilot in the Aerofly FS 2 is an realistic simulation of the real world autopilot. Therefor you can also refer to A320 autopilot videos, other descriptions or tutorials or the flight crew operating manual (FCOM) if you need to. We're going to provide an overview of what the autopilot buttons do.
 +
 +The flight control unit (FCU) is the interface between the pilots and the flight guidance system (autopilot, flight management). It consists of four knobs that can be turned, pulled out and pushed.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Flight Director (FD) and Flight Mode Annunciator ===
 +
 +=== Autopilot (AP) Master ===
 +
 +The autopilot actuates the elevator, ailerons and spoiler and rudder to steer the aircraft laterally and vertically. The elevator is used to control the pitch attitude of the aircraft to climb and descent. The ailerons, spoilers and rudder is used to bank the aircraft and fly coordinated turns.
 +
 +   * Push the autopilot button 1 or 2 to engage one of the two autopilots. Only for a fully automated landing with ILS would two autopilots be engaged at the same time.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_autopilot.jpg |}}
 +
 +The state of the autopilot is shown in the top right of the primary flight display (PFD). The PFD either shows AP1 or AP2 or AP 1+2 when the autopilot(s) are engaged.
 +
 +The lateral and vertical mode that the autopilot is operating in is displayed at the top of the primary flight display in the second (vertical mode) and third column (lateral mode).
 +
 +=== Auto-Thrust (A/THR) Master ===
 +
 +The Auto-Thrust (A/THR) (a.k.a. auto-throttle in other aircraft) controls the thrust to the engines. Depending on what the flight director vertical mode is the engine thrust is either constantly adjusted to maintain a target airspeed or the thrust is advanced to full climb thrust for a climb or retarded to idle thrust for a descent.
 +
 +     * Push the A/THR button to arm the auto thrust system
 +     * Move the thrust levers to the climb detent to activate it.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_autothrust.jpg |}}
 +
 +The state of the auto thrust system is displayed in the top right corner of the primary flight display (PFD). When the text A/THR is in white color then the auto thrust is active. When the text is in cyan/blue the auto thrust has been armed but is currently not operating, e.g. because the pilot still has the thrust levers at idle or above the CLB detent (MCT with one engine failed). Setting the thrust levers into the climb detent changed the auto thrust state from armed to engaged.
 +
 +The active thrust mode is shown in the top left corner of the PFD, in the first column. When it shows SPEED then the auto thrust system is controlling the airspeed and varies the thrust command to the engines accordingly. THR CLB or THR IDLE are shown when climb or idle thrust is commanded to the engines. When the mode shows MAN TOGA or MAN MCT or MAN FLX then the auto thrust is not active, you are manually overriding it with the thrust lever.
 +
 +=== Interaction Between Vertical Mode and Auto-Thrust ===
 +
 +If you select a vertical mode like CLB or OP CLB by pushing or pulling the altitude knob the auto-thrust system will increase the engine thrust to climb thrust (THR CLB) and maintain that. The autopilot will then pitch up to keep the speed target. This means the autopilot is controlling the speed with the climb angle now and the engines are just producing the maximum climb thrust.
 +
 +When you reach the target altitude the autopilot will capture the altitude (ALT*) and then maintain it (ALT). When this happens the auto-thrust switches back to SPEED mode and change the engine thrust to maintain the speed target again. Now the auto-thrust controls the speed again and the autopilot maintains the altitude.
 +
 +A similar thing happens during the descent. If you have DES or OP DES engaged the auto thrust will retard the thrust to idle (THR IDLE) and the autopilot pitches down to keep the airspeed target. So again the autopilot is controlling the speed and the auto-thrust is just keeping a fixed thrust value, in this case idle.
 +Once the aircraft has descended to the target altitude the auto-thrust controls the speed again and the autopilot switches to altitude hold.
 +
 +**Note** - This works pretty well if you have the autopilot and auto-thrust engaged. If you control either of them manually you have to be careful because you as a pilot then need to make sure that the airspeed is kept within limits. Imaging the engines going to full throttle but you don't pull up to keep the airspeed. Or the engines go to idle and stay there but you don't pitch the nose down. This can get out of hand quickly. This is why most airlines require the pilots to either use both: AP and A/THR or neither. Or at least make sure that for landing the auto-thrust is indeed controlling speed and no longer keeping idle thrust.
 +
 +=== Managed/​Selected Modes ===
 +
 +Generally speaking, if a knob is **pushed in** the control is handed over to the automation in the **managed mode**. The field becomes dashed and a dot appears next to it (triple dash and a dot). Then the autopilot will use the flight plan as a reference.
 +
 +If a knob is **pulled out** we gain manual control and can change the target values ourselves in the **selected mode**. If we pull the speed knob for example the speed window opens with the current airspeed and we can then **turn the knob to change the selected speed**.
 +
 +=== Speed-Knob ===
 +
 +Push the speed knob to use the route speed as computed by the flight management computers. The speed will automatically change throughout the flight and the autopilot will fly the aircraft accordingly. When there is no flight plan it won't do anything (unless you're already on approach).
 +
 +Pull the speed knob to set the autopilot target airspeed manually. Turn the knob to change the selected speed.
 +
 +Depending on the vertical mode the autopilot is either pitching the airplane up or down to keep the target speed or it is using the auto thrust to keep the speed.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_athr_speed.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Heading-Knob ===
 +
 +Push the heading knob in to arm and capture the flight route laterally. This allows the aircraft to turn left and right according to the programmed flight plan and steer towards the destination on its own in NAV mode. When there is no flight plan nearby the autopilot will keep flying on the selected heading, only when you intercept the flight plan will it capture the flight plan.
 +
 +Pull the heading knob to fly a selected heading in HDG mode. Turn the knob left or right to change the target heading, the aircraft will turn towards that left or right.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_heading.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Altitude-Knob ===
 +
 +Turn the knob to set a new target altitude that the autopilot is allowed to fly to.
 +
 +Pushing the altitude knob performs a managed climb (CLB) or descent (DES) towards the selected altitude when you have a route programmed. It does nothing if there is no route nearby and it only works if you are already flying along the route in NAV mode. With this mode the autopilot will automatically level off at altitude constraints if the flight plan requires that.
 +
 +Pulling the altitude knob tells the autopilot to immediately climb or descent to the selected altitude without any restrictions in open climb (OP CLB) or open descent (OP DES) modes.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_altitude.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Vertical-Speed-Knob ===
 +
 +Pushing the vertical speed knob is a bit different, as it doesn'​t put the autopilot into a managed mode. If you push the vertical speed knob the autopilot will immediately level off with vertical speed mode (VS) and maintain 0 ft/min.
 +
 +Pulling the vertical speed knob also engages the vertical speed mode (VS) but it keeps the vertical speed at time of engagement unless you change the target by turning the knob.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_vertical_speed.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== EXPED button ===
 +
 +The expedite button when pressed triggers a rapid climb or descent to the target altitude. For the climb the autopilot pitches up until the speed gets pretty low (green dot speed) and for the descent it pitches down to almost the maximum speed. This button is rarely used in real life but if you need to descent quickly, this is the button you want to use. That and full airbrakes.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_expedite.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== LOC and APPR ===
 +
 +The localizer button (LOC) arms the localizer capture. If there is an ILS localizer signal the autopilot will capture the runway localizer and fly towards the runway. It only steers left and right for this, it doesn'​t change the vertical mode.
 +
 +The approach button (APPR) does the same but also arms the glide slope capture. After capturing the localizer (LOC* or LOC), when the glide slope is intercepted,​ the autopilot will capture it (G/S*) as well and automatically descent to the runway threshold in G/S mode. When LOC and G/S are both captured a fully automatic landing can be performed if the runway allows for that.
 +
 +At 400 feet above ground the autopilot will switch to LAND mode and no buttons on the flight control unit (FCU) will change that. The only way to leave this mode is to go around or land.
 +At 50 ft the autopilot switches from LAND to FLARE. It will automatically arrest the sink rate, retard the thrust to idle, touch down and roll out. Between twenty and ten feet you need to retard the thrust levers to idle because the auto-spoilers and auto-brakes only engage when the levers are at idle or in reverse.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_approach.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Speed/Mach Toggle ===
 +
 +At high altitudes the Mach number (speed divided by speed of sound) becomes the relevant speed limit for the aircraft. E.g. the A320 can only fly Mach 0.85 (85% the speed of sound). At such high speeds the sound barrier starts to have an effect and creates a lot of drag. For this reason it becomes more economical to fly at lower indicated airspeeds at a fixed economical mach number (ECON Mach). At the crossover altitude the autopilot therefor automatically transitions from a speed target to a Mach target. SPEED becomes MACH.
 +
 +The button SPD/MACH allows you to manually switch between the Mach and speed reference after pulling out the speed knob for the selected speed mode.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_mach.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Heading/​Track Vertical-Speed/​Flight-Path-Angle Toggle ===
 +
 +The HDG/TRK VS/FPA button switches between a heading and vertical speed reference (where the nose is pointing at and how fast you climb or descent) over to a track and flight path angle reference (where you're actually flying with the wind and at what angle you climb or descent).
 +
 +The TRK+FPA mode is useful during an approach where you have a bit of crosswind and instead of calculating how much you need to point the nose into the wind to fly where you want to, you just tell the autopilot where you want to fly to in track mode. It automatically compensates the cross wind and keeps the aircraft flying in the same direction.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_track_flight_path_angle.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== Metric Altitude Toggle ===
 +
 +The METRIC ALT button displays the selected altitude in meters on the primary flight display (PFD) as well as on the bottom of the lower ECAM.
 +In some countries like Russia and China the air traffic control (ATC) uses metric altitudes. So you could be given a clearance to climb to 3000 meters and thanks to the metric altitude display you don't have to guess how many feet that is.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_metric_altitude.jpg |}}
 +
 +=== 100/1000 ft Ring ===
 +
 +Behind the altitude knob there is a ring that can be set to the left or right to change the increments of the altitude selector between 100 and 1000 feet.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_fcu_altitude.jpg |}}
 +
 +
 +==== A320 MCDU Introduction ====
 +
 +The Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU) is the interface to the flight management computer, which computes the flight plan. In this tutorial we're going to setup a flight plan from Sacramento Intl. (KSMF) to San Francisco Intl. (KSFO) similar to the beginner tutorial above. But this time we're only going to use the cockpit interfaces and not the simulator'​s menus.
 +
 +But first we'll provide a brief overview of the MCDU. The Aerofly FS 2 A320 MCDU mainly behaves like the real world counterpart. Some functions are not available yet but this can be change in the future.
 +
 +Pages in the MCDU include for example the Direct-To page, Progress, Performance,​ Init, Data, Flight-Plan,​ Radio-Navigation,​ Fuel-Prediction,​ Secondary Flight-Plan,​ ATC Communications,​ MCDU Menu.
 +
 +{{:​wiki:​a320_mcdu_line_select.jpg?​300| }}
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_scratch_pad.jpg?​300| }}
 +
 +=== Line Select Keys ===
 +
 +
 +To the left and right of the MCDU display there are six line select keys (LSK). They serve the purpose to select something on the display, e.g. to insert a value into that field or to select a menu option to open other pages or options.
 +
 +=== Scratch-Pad ===
 +
 +A text box at the bottom of the MCDU is used to type in values or identifiers but also show additional information,​ some warnings or error messages. After completing an entry a line select key is usually pressed to insert the entry into a field on the page.
 +
 +The clear key in the lower right corner of the keyboard deletes the last character of the entry. When there is no text left in the scratchpad a "​CLR"​ text is shown instead. With the CLR text in the scratchpad it is possible to remove entered values by pressing the respective line select key.
 +
 +Press and hold the clear key to delete the entire entry.
 +
 +=== Create a Flight Plan with the MCDU ===
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​navigation_menu_delete_route.png?​220|}}
 +
 +In the navigation menu delete any previous flight plan. You can also delete the flight plan from within the MCDU by pressing the CLR key and then deleting the FROM/TO field on the INIT page A.
 +
 +Please move your aircraft back to the Sacramento Intl. onto the parking position. Make sure the parking brake is set. We will now setup the flight plan to San Francisco.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_beginner_sacramento_runway_16r.jpg| }}
 +
 +
 +=== D-I-F-R-I-P ===
 +
 +The page sequence to setup a typical flight is
 +  * **D**- Data
 +  * **I**- Init Page A (From/To, Alternate)
 +  * **F**- Flight Plan
 +  * **R**- Radio Navigation
 +  * **I**- Init Page B (Weight & Balance and Fuel)
 +  * **P**- Performance
 +
 +=== Data ===
 +
 +The data page (A/C Status Page) shows up when the MCDU boots up. It can be opened manually by pressing the DATA key and then selecting the line select key 4L next to A/C STATUS.
 +The data is verified, especially the navigation data base times.
 +
 +=== Init Page A ===
 +
 +Press the INIT button to see the first initialization page.
 +
 +Enter the departure airport ICAO identifier, a slash and the destination airport ICAO identifier into the scratchpad. For the tutorial flight enter ''​KSMF/​KSFO''​. Push the line select key in 1R to insert the entry into the FROM/TO field.
 +
 +> Cheat: With an empty scratch-pad click the line select key next to the FROM/TO field. This will automatically fill the type the first part (nearest airport ICAO and a slash) into the scratchpad. When the first part has already been entered it will suggest the second part. This way you can quickly create a flight by just clicking the line select key 1R on the init page twice. This only works on the ground when the aircraft has not entered the takeoff phase yet.
 +
 +Enter a flight number into the scratchpad (e.g. ''​A1234''​) and press the LSK 3L to insert the FLT NBR.
 +
 +Select a cost index, type ''​20''​ into the scratch-pad and select the LSK 5L. Higher cost index consumes more fuel and gets you to the destination faster. 0 would be minimum fuel consumption,​ 999 would be fastest possible.
 +
 +Select a cruise altitude. For our flight 12 or 13000ft would be ok, so type ''​13000''​ and insert it into the CRZ FL field.
 +
 +{{:​wiki:​a320_mcdu_init_page_a_from_to.jpg?​300| }}
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_init_page_a_completed.jpg?​300| }}
 +
 +=== Flight-Plan Page ===
 +
 +**Select a Departure**
 +
 +From the flight plan page press the left line select key on the first line (LSK 1L) next to the departure airport ICAO identifier to select the departure airport and to perform a so called lateral revision (LAT REV).
 +
 +Select the menu option DEPARTURE with the LSK 1L.
 +
 +Use up/down the arrow keys on the MCDU to scroll through the departure runways if needed, press the left side line select key that is next to the runway "​16R"​.
 +
 +Select the line select key in the lower right corner "TMPY INSERT"​ to execute the temporary flight plan.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_flight_plan_departure_all.jpg |}}
 +
 +**Select an Arrival**
 +
 +From the flight plan page press the lower left line select key next to the destination ICAO identifier and from the LAT REV page select ARRIVAL.
 +
 +Use the up/down arrows on the MCDU to scroll through the list until you see ILS28R (or just 28R works too). Push the up arrow to slide the contents of the page up, as if you were pushing a drum. Similarly push the down arrow to push the contents back down (scroll back up).
 +
 +Select the line select key in the lower right corner "TMPY INSERT"​ to execute the temporary flight plan.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_flight_plan_arrival_all.jpg |}}
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_flight_plan_completed.jpg?​300|}}
 +
 +** Add Waypoints **
 +
 +There are several ways to add waypoints to the flight plan. One option is manually typing the waypoint'​s name and then pressing the line select key where it should go in the list.
 +
 +For the tutorial flight type ''​OAK''​ and click the line select key before the "​28R"​ ILS approach.
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_radio_navigation_vor.jpg?​300|}}
 +
 +=== Radio Navigation ===
 +
 +
 +Press the RAD/NAV button to show the Radio Navigation page. This page shows how the radio receivers for the VOR1/2, ILS and ADF1/2 are tuned. You can enter either a frequency or the identifier of a station and then use the line select key to insert your entry.
 +
 +The A320 automatically fills these for you if they are left empty, if you make an entry it overwrites this auto-tuning. To resume the automatic tuning of the radio frequencies you'll have to delete your manual entry by pressing the clear key ('' ​  ​CLR''​ is shown) and then pressing the line select key next to it.
 +
 +Go ahead and type ''​SAC''​ for the Sacramento VOR near our flight plan and insert it in the VOR1 field. Sacramento is now manually tuned and we can receive the DME information and a radial to that station.
 +
 +Type ''​155''​ into the course field to setup an inbound course of 155 degrees to the VOR station. Switch the navigation display (ND) to VOR ROSE mode to see the typical HSI view.
 +
 +
 +=== Init Page B ===
 +
 +Press the INIT button to get the the init page A, then press the left arrow button on the MCDU to get access to the second init page, Init Page B, or INIT FUEL PRED. 
 +When the engines have already been started you'll be redirected to the FUEL PRED page, which works similarly.
 +
 +Enter the zero fuel weight (ZFW) in metric tons and zero fuel weight center of gravity (ZFWCG) in percent. E.g. type ''​49.0/​30.0''​.
 +
 +> Cheat: With an empty scratchpad you can click the line select key next to the ZFW/ZFWCG field and it will automatically fill the scratchpad for you.
 +
 +Enter the block fuel (e.g. fuel on board FOB as seen on the upper ECAM screen) in metric tons, e.g. ''​7.2''​.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_performance_takeoff.jpg?​300|}}
 +
 +=== Takeoff Performance ===
 +
 +Press the PERF key to open the performance page. When you are on the ground this will show the takeoff performance page.
 +
 +The performance page is filled in last, when the boarding and loading of the aircraft is completed and when the fueling has been completed. When the runway changes last minute this page will have to be revisited.
 +
 +Fill in the v-speeds, V1, VR and V2.
 +For the tutorial flight you can use ''​135'',​ ''​140''​ and ''​142''​.
 +
 +Enter the takeoff flaps and trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS) (takeoff pitch trim), e.g. ''​1/​UP0.0''​
 +
 +Insert a flexible takeoff temperature (FLEX TO TEMP) that is above the outside air temperature to reduce the thrust for takeoff, which in the real world at least saves fuel and reduces stress on the engines. Leave this field empty or even clear it when you have a short runway and/or the aircraft is heavy.
 +
 +Confirm the thrust reduction (THR RED) and acceleration altitudes (ACC). Per default they are 1000ft above the field elevation but for some departures higher values may be necessary, e.g. for noise abatement.
 +
 +> Cheat: With an empty scratchpad you can click the line select keys next to the v-speeds, flap and flex temperature to receive suggested values. By just clicking the same line select key twice the entire page is filled in very quickly.
 +
 +> Cheat 2: When a flight plan has been inserted you'll see the UPLINK TO DATA option. When you click it a request to the company is made and it comes back with computed performance data. Click CONFIRM TO DATA in the lower right to insert all fields at once.
 +
 +If you want to you can pre-select a speed for the climb phase. For this select the NEXT PHASE option, type a desired selected speed into the scratchpad and insert it into the PRESEL field. For example you can type ''​210''​. With a preset speed after takeoff when the aircraft flies above the acceleration height the speed target of the autopilot will change from managed to selected and the speed from the preset will be inserted into the flight control unit (FCU). This reduces the workload, it basically does the same as pulling the speed knob and dialing in the desired speed.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_performance_approach.jpg?​300|}}
 +
 +=== Approach Performance ===
 +
 +Click the PERF button. Depending on the phase of flight the current flight phase will be displayed. Move through the pages by clicking the NEXT PHASE button until you see the APPR page.
 +
 +You can manually activate the approach phase in the air directly from any of the other pages. For this click the cyan option ACTIVATE APPR PHASE. The managed airspeed will be set to the VAPP speed. To leave the approach phase perform a go-around or insert a new cruise altitude on the progress page and then climb to it (e.g. by pulling the altitude knob).
 +
 +Enter the destination QNH, temperature,​ wind and the radar decision height or barometric minimum decent altitude before landing.
 +
 +For the tutorial select QNH ''​1013'',​ TEMP ''​15''​ degrees Celsius, Wind ''​0/​0''​ (or what ever you chose the wind to be) and enter ''​100''​ into the DH field.
 +
 +Check the approach speed VAPP, it should be at least 5 knots above the velocity low speed (VLS). If required you can insert an approach speed manually, to compensate for wind gusts, etc. E.g. enter ''​140''​.
 +
 +You also have the option to land with flaps CONF 3 instead of FULL - this is useful if you have a long runway and want to vacate at the end or the runway, of if you want to keep the speed up for sequencing and you are flying a rather light aircraft. If you select this, also activate the ground proximity warning system (GPWS) "LDG FLAP 3" in the left side of the overhead panel to avoid any GPWS callouts like "too low flaps"​.
 +
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​a320_mcdu_progress_bearing.jpg?​300|}}
 +
 +=== Progress Page ===
 +
 +During the descent you can monitor your vertical deviation from the pre-computed glide profile on the progress page.
 +
 +Click the PROG button to open the progress page.
 +
 +On the progress page you can also check a bearing or distance of any waypoint, airport, vor, adf or even individual runway thresholds. For our tutorial type ''​KSFO28R''​ and enter it on the right hand line select, 4th from the top, opposite to BRG/DIST. When the identifier is recognized it will display the bearing and distance to the San Francisco Intl. runway 28R, a good measure for the remaining distance between you and the runway.
 +
 +----
 +
 +
 +===== V-Speeds and Ranges =====
 +
 +[[aircraft:​basic_flight_information|What are the v-speeds?]]
 +
 +**Speed Limits**
 +
 +|Vmo  |Max Operating Speed |350 KIAS        |
 +|Mmo  |Max Operating Speed |.82M            |
 +|Vlo  |Max Gear Extension ​ |250 KIAS        |
 +|Vlo  |Max Gear Retraction |220 KIAS        |
 +|Vle  |Max Gear Extended ​  |280 KIAS / .67M |
 +
 +^Turbulence Penetration ^At or Above 20,000 FT ^Below 20,000 FT ^ 
 +^A320                   |275 KIAS / .76M       |250 KIAS        |
 +
 +^Max Flaps / Slats (Vfe)                                     ​^^^^^^^
 +^Model ^Position ^1        ^1+F      ^2        ^3        ^Full     ^
 +^A320  |Vfe      |230 KIAS |215 KIAS |200 KIAS |185 KIAS |177 KIAS |
 +
 +**Speeds**
 +
 +**Cockpit Window Open Speed**
 +Maximum - 200 KIAS
 +
 +^Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/​Mach) ​   ^^^^^^^^^
 +^Speed ​ ^Pressure Altitude (1000 FT)            ^^^^^^^^
 +^       ​|SL ​ |10.0 |16.0 |20.0 |24.0 |28.0 |30.0 |39.0 |
 +^*Va    |248 |250  |260  |270  |280  |290  |295  |.78  |
 +
 +^Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KAIS) ​               ^^^^^^
 +^Config ​  ​^1 ​      ​^1+F ​   ^2       ​^3 ​              ​^FULL ​  ​^ ​
 +^Vfe      |230     ​|215 ​   |200     ​|185 ​            ​|177 ​   |
 +^Slats ​   |18      |18     ​|22 ​     |22              |27     |
 +^Flaps ​   |0       ​|10 ​    ​|15 ​     |20              |40     |
 +^Remarks ​ |Initial |Takeoff|Takeoff/​|Takeoff/​Approach|Landing|
 +^         ​|Approach| ​      ​|Approach|Landing ​        ​| ​      |
 +
 +**Takeoff with Flaps 1**
 +When flap configuration 1 is selected for takeoff flaps and slats are extended (1 + F), the configuration automatically changes to 1 at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended.
 +
 +**Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3**
 +When configuration 1 is selected from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats)
 +
 +**Flaps Selection in Flight**
 +When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended (CONF 1).
 +
 +^Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH) ^^
 +^Retraction (Vlo)         ​|220 ​                   |
 +^Extension (Vlo)          |250                    |
 +^Extended (Vle)           |280 / .67              |
 +^Maximum Tire Speed       |195 Knots Groundspeed ​ |
 +
 +^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/​Mmo ​      ^^^
 +^Speed ​   ^Pressure Altitude ​                    ^^
 +^         ​|SL-25,​000 ​     |25,000 - 39,​000 ​       |
 +^Vmo/​Mmo ​ |350            |.82                    |
 +
 +**Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca**
 +Vmca - 119 KIAS
 +
 +**Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg**
 +Vmcg - 114 KIAS
 +
 +^Operating Speeds (KIAS/​MACH) ​                    ^^
 +^Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative) ​    |ECON CLIMB    |
 +^Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative) ​ |              |
 +^FL290 and Above                    |.78           |
 +^10,000 FT to FL290                 ​|290 ​          |
 +^Best Climb Rate                    |280           |
 +^Best Climb Angle                   ​|220 ​          |
 +^Optimum ​ Cruise (ECON) ​            |Cost Index=35 |
 +^Standard Cruise ​                   |              |
 +^FL310 and Above                    |.80           |
 +^10,00 FT to FS310                  |300           |
 +^Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative) ​  |ECON DES      |
 +^Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative)|.78 ​          |
 +^10,000 FT and Above                |280           |
 +
 +**Stall Speeds**
 +
 +^Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only^^^^^^^
 +^Gross Weight^Flap Position ​                              ​^^^^^^
 +^(1,000 Lbs)    ^0      ^1      ^1+F    ^2      ^3     ​^FULL ​  ^
 +^170            |179    |140    |134    |125    |124   ​|121 ​   |
 +^160            |170    |136    |130    |120    |119   ​|117 ​   |
 +^150            |161    |132    |125    |116    |115   ​|113 ​   |
 +^140            |154    |127    |119    |112    |111   ​|109 ​   |
 +^130            |144    |121    |115    |108    |107   ​|105 ​   |
 +^120            |138    |116    |110    |104    |103   ​|101 ​   |
 +^110            |132    |111    |105    |99     ​|98 ​   |96     |
 +^100            |126    |106    |100    |95     ​|94 ​   |92     |
 +^90             ​|119 ​   |100    |95     ​|90 ​    ​|89 ​   |87     |
 +^80             ​|114 ​   |95     ​|90 ​    ​|85 ​    ​|84 ​   |82     |
 +
 +**Taxi Speed - Maximum**
 +When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn.
  
aircraft/airbus_a320.1532102687.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/07/20 18:04 by jh