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The Boeing 777-300ER (Triple Seven) is one of the largest and heaviest twin-engine commercial aircraft. Impressively large and powerful are also the two GE90-115B engines, each delivering up to 512 kN thrust. In the 'ER' version, the Triple Seven can carry nearly 400 passengers up to 13,600 km. It is the first Boeing aircraft to be equipped with a Fly By Wire system.
The autopilot and flight director Mode Control Panel (MCP) in the Boeing 777 is located in the glare shield and is the human machine interface to the flight guidance system of this airliner. The autopilot of the B777 works similarly to the B747.
The MCP of this Boeing aircraft can be be split into several regions:
Auto Throttle, Speed, Heading, Vertical Speed, Altitude, Approach and Autopilot Masters
Overview of the buttons, switches and knobs:
The Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) can be found at the top of the primary flight display (PFD). From left to right it indicates:
Directly underneath the status of the autopilot (CMD) and flight director (FD) are displayed as follows. When the autopilot is in control CMD is displayed above the attitude indicator. When all three autopilots are engaged for landing “LAND 3” is displayed. When no autopilot is active but the flight director left or right are still on the text “FD” is shown. When both flight directors are off as well as all autopilots no label is shown and the flight mode annunciator lateral and vertical modes vanish.
On the very far left and right of the MCP there are two switches for the Flight Director (F/D). They control the visibility of the flight directors on the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) for each side.
When the first flight director is set to ON or the autopilot is engaged with the flight directors in the OFF position, the basic lateral and vertical mode are selected automatically.
On the ground the lateral and vertical modes TO/GA are selected. These guide the aircraft wings level and to the MCP speed + 10kts for takeoff.
The basic lateral mode is wings level (LVL) or bank hold (ATT) depending if the current bank angle is above 6° to either side. Wings level (LVL) is followed by heading hold (HDG HOLD) as soon as the bank angle is reduced to zero and the present heading at that time is maintained.
Vertically the basic mode is Vertical Speed hold (VS)
Lateral modes are controlling the aircraft's bank angle to steer the aircraft across the map left and right. One by one we are now going through all lateral modes that the Boeing 777 offers. But first let us visit the BANK LIMIT selector
In most Boeing aircraft the pilot has the option to reduce the maximum bank angle of the aircraft when the autopilot is flying a turn. Available options in the Boeing 777 are: 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5 degrees and AUTO. In AUTO the flight director chooses it's own value, in the Aerofly this currently (as of 7th August 2017) is always 25 degrees.
Note - This is purely optional. If you leave it in AUTO you won't overshoot a turn and you turn around the quickest way possible (currently).
Attitude hold, or rather bank hold, since this is only a lateral mode, maintains the bank angle at engagement. To enter this mode the flight director has to be activated in the air above 6 degrees of bank. This is typically not a mode you would fly in for longer time.
LVL, HDG HOLD
After leveling the wings (LVL) the heading hold (HDG HOLD) mode engages. The heading at that time is maintained. To engage this mode:
Different to the HDG HOLD mode the HDG SEL lateral mode takes your selected heading into account. The the bank angle is adjusted up to the BANK LIMIT value to turn towards the target heading.
To turn towards a selected heading
The TakeOff GoAround lateral mode (TO/GA) commands wings level on the ground and runway heading after lift off. This mode is the default mode when you set the flight directors on while on the ground. In the air this mode is engaged by pressing the TO/GA button which can be assigned in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2.
Lateral NAVigation (LNAV) is using the pre-programmed flight plan (can be created in the navigation dialog) to follow the route to the destination. It will make turns as needed.
The localizer capture function requires the ILS receivers to be set to an ILS frequency. This is done fully automatic with the auto tuning but it requires a flight plan with to be programmed.
Note - The armed status of the LOC can be seen on the FMA in the second line in white. Also the LOC or APP buttons illuminate.
To disarm the localizer capture
Note - You can switch between LOC only and APP as long as they as the glide slope (G/S) is not captured yet.
ROLLOUT automatically arms below 1500ft RA when both LOC and G/S are captured. This lateral mode will maintain the ILS localizer on the ground with rudder. It is part of the fully automatic landing capability of this aircraft.
Vertical modes guide the aircraft up and down. They use the elevator of the aircraft to control the pitch which leads to a change in the flight path angle, ultimately controlling the altitude of the aircraft.
The Vertical Speed hold mode (V/S) compares the current vertical speed of the aircraft with the selected vertical speed in the VERT SPD window and uses the elevator to change the pitch and sink or climb rate.
The Glide Slope (G/S) mode is used to neutralize the ILS glide slope deflection. It requires an ILS frequency to be set in the navigation receivers, currently those are tuned automatically if a flight route has been created.
The glide slope captures when the glide slope diamond is moving towards the center. It can be intercepted from below or above.
Note - The glide slope can only capture after the localizer. The aircraft will not descent when it is not established on the localizer yet. Similarly, when the localizer signal is lost or the localizer deviates too much and the localizer tracking is lost then glide slope is disengaged as well. V/S engages instead.
At 1500ft RA when LOC and G/S are captured the FLARE mode will arm, as can be seen on the PFD in the second line of the FMA. Together with the lateral ROLLOUT mode the FLARE mode will enable the aircraft to touch down on the runway, fully automatic. After touch down the FLARE mode disengages and no active mode is displayed to the pilots.
The mode cannot be selected manually, it can only be disengaged by the touch down or going around. Going around can be done with the TO/GA buttons. In this case the TO/GA vertical mode is engaged (see below).
The altitude hold mode (ALT) either engages automatically when the selected altitude is capturing or is activated by pressing the altitude HOLD button. The pitch of the aircraft is adjusted to stay on the target altitude.
Note - When the HOLD button is illuminated the selected altitude knob above is not affecting the target altitude. When ALT engages from another vertical mode the selected altitude at the time of engagement. When ALT is manually selected the current altitude at engagement is used, not the selected altitude.
The Flight Level Change mode (FLCH) pitches the aircraft to maintain the selected speed in the MCP speed window.
Note - If you are not using auto throttle you need to either increase or decrease throttle for the climb or descent. The aircraft will not pitch down to gain speed if a higher altitude is selected than the aircraft is currently at. The same is true for the descent, the aircraft will not climb if a lower altitude is selected.
When the selected altitude is reached ALT engages and the selected altitude is captured automatically. Changing the selected altitude at this time has no effect, you need to push FLCH again to fly towards the newly selected altitude again.
The TakeOff GoAround mode (TO/GA) controls the pitch of the aircraft and works similar to FLCH in that regard. The speed in the MCP speed window is manually selected to the V2 speed. The guidance will use MCP + 10kts and re synchronize the selected speed with the current speed of the aircraft if it exceeds it significantly (e.g. due to a slow rotation).
To engage the TO/GA vertical mode
The Vertical NAVigation (VNAV) uses the vertical profile of the flight plan and guides the aircraft towards it. The aircraft can only climb towards the target altitude when the selected altitude is higher than the current altitude and it can only descent if the selected altitude is lower.
Note - VNAV requires the route to be near by and it is typically used together with LNAV to fly along the route and climb and descent on profile.
During the climb the target speed from the flight management system (FMS) is uses and VNAV SPD is displayed. In the descent the geometric vertical path of the flight plan is flown in VNAV PATH. When ever the aircraft is leveling off at the selected MPC altitude the mode VNAV ALT engages.
When the selected altitude matches the cruise altitude of the flight plan VNAV ALT is not engaged but VNAV PATH engages since the vertical profile is correctly intercepted. When the aircraft is in cruise and VNAV PATH has engaged the selected altitude can be decreased and the aircraft will descent automatically when the top of descent (TOD) is reached.
To summarize a typical VNAV profile looks like this: VNAV SPD to the selected MCP altitude (crz alt). VNAV PATH engages when the cruise altitude is captured. At the top of descent the aircraft automatically descents when the selected altitude is lower.
VNAV SPD works similar to FLCH SPD but the speed is managed by the FMS and the speed window is blanked.
To engage VNAV SPD:
Note - VNAV SPD can also be activated in the descent, when the aircraft is above the programmed vertical profile for example or when the speed is more important than the vertical path, e.g. when slowing down.
In the cruise phase the target altitude is the cruise altitude and after the top of descent the target altitude decreases towards the destination airport. VNAV PATH pitches up and down to stay at a this computed target altitude, typically with little or even idle thrust.
To arm the VNAV PATH descent when you are at cruise altitude:
When you are in ALT, V/S or FLCH and are below the vertical profile and want to intercept it
When you are above the vertical profile and want to intercept it from above the profile
Altitude Intervention in VNAV ALT
When ever the MCP selected altitude is captured with VNAV active or armed VNAV ALT engages. This indicates that the climb or descent has been interrupted and the aircraft is no longer climbing or descending on profile.
Note - During the descent it is normal to level off at the MCP altitude to intercept the glide slope.
To manually select a speed when VNAV is active click the SPD knob for a speed intervention. The speed window opens and the current target speed is displayed. You can then select your own target airspeed.
To resume the FMS target speed
When no ILS glide slope is available on the destination runway you can fly the approach with LNAV and VNAV.
The Auto Throttle (A/T) in the Boeing 777 is engaging a clutch to move the throttle levers. Since your own control handles on the joystick or throttle lever are not actuated this immediately creates some complications.
Moving Your Control Device Throttle Levers With Auto Throttle Active
We recommend not touching your throttle levers when ever you use auto throttle. When Auto Throttle is controlling speed (SPD/MACH) you can move the levers and it will have no effect.
When Auto Throttle is in THR REF moving the throttle levers below about 30% will disengage auto throttle and you regain manual thrust control.
When Auto Throttle is in HOLD your throttle levers are ignored unless you move them by about 10%. Then your manual throttle position is taken into account.
When you use the TO/GA button (assignable in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2) on the ground you should move your throttle levers forward as well right away or leave them in the 50% range and not touch them until you are in the climb.
Reaching the selected altitude the auto throttle will go into SPD mode where you can move your device throttle levers to an intermediate position if desired.
When the auto throttle activates IDLE you can move your device throttles to idle as well. Just be quick about it or HOLD will already be engaged and you are suddenly moving the throttles to a forward position.
During the approach SPD is usually active again, then you can move the throttle all you want.
Engaging Auto Throttle
The Auto Throttle (A/T) is armed with the A/T ARM switch on the MCP. If that switch is off auto throttle will be off as well.
In this mode auto throttle is constantly adjusting the throttle levers to match the MCP target speed (could be blanked, then it is FMS speed).
In THR REF mode auto throttle is holding the maximum allowed thrust. This thrust is changed with from TOGA to CLB thrust upon reaching the thrust reduction altitude.
Note - You cannot engage auto throttle in THR REF mode when the Flight Directors (FD) are off. When A/T is in THR REF mode and you set both FDs to off the auto throttle will switch to SPD mode.
On the ground when A/T is armed (and F/D on) you can press the TakeOff GoAround Button as assigned in the control settings to engage THR REF. The auto throttle will spool up the engines to takeoff thrust and then disconnect from the levers (HOLD).
In the air, when you press the FLCH or VNAV button with A/T switch in the ARM position auto throttle will engage in THR REF mode.
Note - Moving your throttle levers to idle will disengage the auto throttle. It is still armed and will resume when you press FLCH for example.
To change the thrust reference from TOGA to CLB prior to reaching the thrust reduction altitude you can press the THR button
In this mode auto throttle is actively pulling back the throttle levers to idle. The IDLE mode is typically followed by HOLD.
Note - You cannot engage auto throttle in IDLE mode when the Flight Directors (FD) are off. When A/T is in IDLE mode and you set both FDs to off the auto throttle will switch to SPD mode.
When the flight mode annunciator (FMA) on the primary flight display (PFD) shows “HOLD” the auto throttle has disconnected and you are can move your control thrust levers to any position you like. If you don't move them the current thrust is maintained.
Note - During the descent HOLD may switch back to SPD and then IDLE and back to HOLD when in VNAV. When auto throttle is in SPD moving your control device throttle levers has no effect.
In a Boeing 777 following the route and climbing and descending is very easy. On the ground you set the flight directors to on and arm LNAV and VNAV and the auto throttle (A/T). On the runway you press the TakeOff GoAround (TOGA) button, which can be assigned in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2, and take off manually. Right after lift off you can engage the autopilot and let if climb in VNAV SPD. Upon reaching the acceleration height the autopilot pitches the aircraft forward and you can retract the flaps. Reaching cruise altitude VNAV PATH engages. Prior to the top of descent you reduce the selected altitude and the aircraft will automatically descent on profile. Near the airport APP is pressed to arm the ILS. Configure the aircraft for landing and adjust the MCP speed window for the final approach to VREF and the aircraft can land on its own and come to a complete stop.
We're going to fly from Denver (KDEN) to San Francisco (KSFO) today to demonstrate the B777 features. You can of course choose any origin and destination that you like and make the flight as long as you want or as short as you want.
This flight takes at least two hours when flown in real time but we'll skip a big portion of it since the cruise is quite monotonous. A typical flight in the B777-300ER would take probably ten hours and more so this is already considered a very short flight.
Required time for this tutorial flight:
Between 30min and 2.5h depending on how much of the flight you want to skip ahead.
We will depart from runway 25 at KDEN and fly direct to the destination. For KSFO we'll use the ILS 28L for landing. The cruise altitude is set to FL410.
If you don't want to mess with the flight management system and the CDU you can set up this route with a few steps in the navigation dialog.
From the main menu open the location dialog and click on Denver on the map. On the airport diagram that opens select the parking position on the west side of the airport. From there we only have to turn right and follow the taxiway to runway 25.
Start the flight.
Look down and set the parking brake to prevent the aircraft from rolling away. On the EICAS screen you should see a white “PARK BRAKE SET” memo whenever the parking brake is set.
We'll now set up the aircraft for the flight step by step. We'll begin with the optional CDU flight preparations, then continue with the (mandatory) MCP preflight and then finish with the preflight checks.
You can skip this next step if you already set up the route with the Aerofly FS navigation map from the main menu!
One of the reference pages should open.
The index page is the main menu for the initialization and reference page. From here you can jump to any of those pages.
On the position initialization page
Since we're starting at the ramp we'll leave the gate field empty.
The inertial reference system (IRS) is already aligned, so no further action is needed.
This page should already be filled. Later on you may have to insert the values there. These current values are subject to change.
This doesn't yet modify the route. We'll have to activate the new route and then execute the changes.
We're now going to select the departure from KDEN and arrival into KSFO.
Flaps 15 is selected as takeoff flaps per default in Aerofly FS. You can change this by entering “5” or “20” and inserting that text into the FLAP field.
Take note of the v-speeds on the right of the aircraft. For this flight we'll use the suggested V1 135 kt, VR 140 kt and V2 150 kt speeds.
Also take note of the pitch trim setting, in this case 4.0 units.
For this flight we're not going to use a reduced takeoff thrust. But if you want to you can reduce the takeoff thrust by selecting an assumed temperature:
On the EICAS screen at the very top above the engine N1 display you should now see a “D-TO 2 +50C” text.
However for the tutorial flight we're going to select the standard takeoff rating.
On the EICAS you should now see a green “TO” text above the engine N1. The green thrust limit indicators on the engine N1 scales should have gone up.
The final thrust is determined by the thrust lever position only. When you use the autothrottle then the ATHR will move your thrust levers to the selected thrust limit position. Disengage the autothrottle and advance the thrust levers to the maximum if you need more thrust. You can also press the TOGA button multiple times to cancel any thrust limits and go to maximum available go around thrust (GA).
During the climb if you want to keep the autothrottle engaged you need to come back to this THRUST LIM page to adjust the climb thrust limit. E.g. select CLB if you want to climb at a higher rate.
On this page you can adjust the cruise altitude during the flight. It should display FL410 at the moment since we selected that earlier.
The B777 (and A320 and B747,…) have the ability to draw lines and rings on the navigation display. We're going to use this for reference for our extended runway centerline and to judge the distance to the runway.
The navigation display should then show the radial and range ring.
We're now finished with the optional CDU preflight settings.
We're now going to set up the mode control panel (MCP) for takeoff.
We're going to use the electronic checklists in the B777.
Note: The following interactions are temporary solutions. This will probably change with upcoming updates.
Move the mouse cursor over the lower center screen and hold down the left mouse button to move the magenta cursor on the display. To perform a click action on the screen click the Boeing 777 logo above the screen.
On a touch device simply touch the screen and drag the cursor that way. In VR you'll have to use a grab gesture.
The cursor should move to the first unchecked item automatically.
If you want to go back or open a different checklist you can also use the NORMAL MENU.
Complete the >BEFORE START< checklist
The MCP (mode control panel) was just set up in the previous step. We used V2 152, HDG 262, ALT 41000
Takeoff speeds are visible on the TAKEOFF REF page
The TAKEOFF REF shows us the v-speeds: V1 135, VR 140, V2 150. Keep this page open.
The CDU preflight was done at the beginning or skipped by using the Aerofly FS route planner.
Pitch trim will be 4.0 units. Use the alternate pitch trim lever on the center console or the pitch trim switches on the yoke or your assigned commands to change the pitch trim to 4.0. The trim is already at that setting per default. Rudder and Aileron trim should be zero.
The >BEFORE TAXI< checklist should open automatically on the electronic checklist page. Otherwise you can select it from the NORMAL MENU.
Release the parking brake and advance the thrust levers a bit to start rolling. Make two right turns and one left turn and head south towards the runway 25. Stop in front of the runway at the hold short lines.
Let's quickly go through the before takeoff checklist:
Line up on the runway now.
Let's take off.
The aircraft accelerates
At 80kts the autothrottle mode changes to HOLD. The autothrottle is no longer powered and you have full manual control over the thrust. Do not change your throttle levers now unless you want to abort the landing or command a different thrust.
Past V1 you're no longer able to stop on the runway, take your hands off the throttle.
Airspeed is approaching VR
Eventually the aircraft lifts off and you can see a positive climb rate
At 400ft VNAV will engage. The autothrottle turns back on in THR REF mode.
At 1000ft the autopilot pitches forward to pick up speed. The autothrottle reduces the thrust to climb. We armed CLB 1 earlier, this reduced climb thrust is now activated.
Let's quickly run the after takeoff checklist.
During the climb we'll pass through 10,000ft and 18,000ft (transition height). The autopilot pitches forward and accelerates the aircraft to climb speed.
Reaching 18,000ft (transition altitude in the U.S.) we're switching all three altimeters to standard pressure
With LNAV and VNAV engaged the autopilot will follow the flight plan and also level off at the selected cruise altitude of FL410. There is no action required at this point except monitoring the flight progress.
You can go back to the main menu now and open the location dialog. Zoom out on the map and drag the map across so that you see the route up ahead.
Click on a point east of the airfields Lee Vining and Bryant Field. In case that you're not already at 41,000ft drag the altitude slider on the right to set 41,000ft. Drag the heading to line up with the route.
Resume the flight and immediately press 'a' to re-engage the autopilot. LNAV/VNAV should engage right away and after a short time the aircraft should stabilize itself at cruise altitude. We can now proceed with the pre-decent preparations.
The reference approach speed (VREF) will be 145 for flaps 30. You can select a different value in the CDU.
On the right side of the APPROACH REF page you can see suggested approach flaps and the associated VREF.
For the decision height we're going to select a minimum radar height of 100ft. This should already be set per default. However, here is how you would adjust that setting:
On the EFIS control panel
Let's open the electronic checklist again by pressing the CHKL button as shown before and go through the pre-descent checklist.
Click the NORMAL button on the checklist screen to advance to the approach checklist for later.
We'll fly the ILS approach for runway 28L at San Francisco. The autopilot is programmed to take us down to 3000ft on LNAV to the final approach fix from where we can intercept the localizer and glide slope easily. We're already on an intercept heading at this time. We'll use the autopilot to fly the approach until about 1000ft above ground, then land manually. Wind is calm.
When the aircraft is flying in VNAV PTH (vertical navigation path) as shown on the PFD (primary flight display) in the top right corner, then the autopilot will automatically descent at the calculated top of descent point.
If you want to start descending immediately you can either push the altitude knob in or push the FLCH button. When you push the altitude knob in the aircraft will fly a shallow descent until it intercepts the programmed descent path again. With FLCH the aircraft will switch to flight level change and just fly towards the selected altitude with either idle thrust (descent) or climb thrust (climb, not applicable here).
In case you flew past the calculated top of descent point the autopilot switches into VNAV ALT mode. To correct this and to descent
The aircraft will descent for quite a while. Monitor the vertical deviation on the navigation display and
For the majority of the descent you want to use idle thrust and as little speedbrake as possible to save fuel. If you need speedbrake that is a sign that you already wasted fuel before. If you need additional thrust during the descent it means that you waste fuel by flying lower than the most economical cruise altitude.
Note: You can also increase or decrease the speed. Push in the speed knob and rotate it to select a speed for the descent. When you fly slower you will glide further (up to a certain point). When you increase the speed you will descent steeper.
We're getting closer to our destination. It's time to prepare for the ILS28L approach into San Francisco. In the preflight we already loaded the approach with the CDU. Now the ILS frequency should be auto-tuned to 109.55 MHz and a the course should be set to 265°. On the primary flight display a white ISFO text with a DME distance should appear, together with scales for the localizer and glide slope as well as magenta diamonds for the ILS localizer and glide slope deviations.
The autopilot will level us off at 3000ft and VNAV will start reducing the target speed for the approach. The speed will now reduce quickly. We have to extend the flaps to fly this slow. On the primary flight display you will see the speeds UP, 1, 5, 15, etc. appear on the speed tape. When you fly close to one of these speeds or when the speed you should extend the next flap position. E.g. when you fly near the up speed “UP” you should extend to flaps 1. When you fly at or below the speed “1” you should extend flaps to 5.
Once a flap is extended VNAV will reduce the target speed further to slow us down. But the autothrottle will always keep us at a safe speed. Continue to extend flaps to the position 15.
Let's verify that we didn't forget anything with the electronic approach checklist. Open the electronic checklist again by pressing the CHKL button as shown before. Press the NORMAL button once all items are completed to advance to the landing checklist for later.
Once ISFO is identified on the PFD and the received signals appear to be valid
When the aircraft path intercepts the localizer signal the autopilot lateral mode will change to LOC. The autopilot turns the aircraft onto the approach course and tracks the localizer.
After the localizer is captured the glide slope can also be capture when it's intercepted. The vertical mode will change to GS.
Once the glide slope captures the autopilot selected speed will no longer be managed by the VNAV. You have to manually adjust the speed.
When the landing gear is down
The aircraft should be on localizer and glide slope at this point and the autopilot is still flying. We're cleared for landing.
The landing checklist should be completed at this point. We'll read through to make sure. After completion hide the checklist again for landing by pressing the CHKL button again.
With the localizer and glide slope captured the autopilot will fly us all the way to touch down. But we won't let the airplane have all the fun and disconnect the autopilot when the approach looks stabilized, e.g. at 1000ft above the runway.
Fly the aircraft to the runway 28L touch down point - the big white rectangles on the runway, next to the white/red papi lights. The aircraft should be well trimmed so that only small corrections are needed.
The fully automatic landing can only be performed on an ILS equipped runway and only when the localizer is not at an offset angle. In our case the localizer is at an angle to the runway 28L at KSFO and we won't be able to use it for the entire landing. The ILS receivers have to be tuned to the ILS frequency for the approach. The auto tuning function does automatically this for us when we come close to the destination runway. During the landing the autopilot will control the lateral alignment with the runway and the descent towards the touch down point on the runway. The autopilot will flare the aircraft and use the steering to stay on the centerline. However the autopilot cannot control functions other than aileron, elevator and rudder (nose wheel steering). This means we as pilots have to manage all the remaining systems like flaps, spoilers, reverse, braking.
Configure for a normal landing but keep the autopilot and auto-throttles engaged. Arm the ground spoilers and set the autobrake to the required setting (e.g. 2 or 3). Check the minimums and altimeters and notes. Set the flaps and reduce the speed to final approach speed by adjusting the speed target in the MCP.
Now let's arm the ILS approach
When the trajectory of the aircraft intercepts the localizer, the LOC-mode will engage. The G/S mode will engage shortly after, once the glide slope is intercepted.
At 1500ft RA the ROLLOUT and FLARE modes are automatically armed which can be observed on the upper part of the PFD, the flight mode annunciator (FMA).
At around 50ft the FLARE mode will engage and touch down the aircraft. At roughly 20ft the auto throttle pulls the throttle levers back to IDLE.
At touch down the ROLLOUT mode activates and keeps the aircraft on the runway. When the ground spoilers have been armed they will extend automatically. Apply reverse thrust as needed. The auto-brake will engage shortly after the spoiler extension if it was set. Otherwise use manual braking.
We can take over manual control again at this point. Disengage the autopilot with the push-button on the yoke (can be assigned in the joystick settings) or the autopilot disengage bar on the MCP.
Exit the runway as usual.