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aircraft:dash8-q400 [2018/07/20 17:26]
jh [Landing]
aircraft:dash8-q400 [2019/07/01 14:44]
jh [Flight Management System (FMS)]
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 {{:​wiki:​q400hor.jpg?​450|}} {{:​wiki:​q400hor.jpg?​450|}}
- 
- 
-====V Speeds and Ranges==== 
- 
-^ Speed Limits ​                     ^^ 
-|Max Cruise Speed         |360 KIAS  | 
-|High Speed Cruise Speed  |349 KIAS  | 
-|Long Range Cruise Speed  |287 KIAS  | 
- 
-^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo ^^ 
-^ Altitude (up to) ^Speed (KNOTS) ​     ^ 
-| 0 - 8,000        | 245               | 
-| 10,​000 ​          | 282               | 
-| 18,​000 ​          | 286               | 
-| 20,​000 ​          | 275               | 
-| 25,​000 ​          | 248               | 
- 
- 
-^Max Flaps Extend Speed (Vfe)                     ^^^^^ 
-^ Position | 5        | 10       | 15      | 35       | 
-^ Speed    | 200 KIAS | 181 KIAS |172 KIAS | 158 KIAS | 
- 
-^ Minimum Control Speed (Vmca) ​                        ^^^^^ 
-^ Flaps Position | 0        | 5       | 10      | 15       | 
-^ Speed          | 113 KIAS | 98 KIAS | 95 KIAS | 91 KIAS  | 
- 
-^ Va (Maneuvering) ​            | 204 KIAS | 
-^ Vlo (Landing Gear Operation) | 200 KIAS | 
-^ Vle (Landing Gear Extended) ​ | 215 KIAS | 
-^ Vra (Rough Air)              | 210 KIAS | 
- 
- 
-^ Takeoff Field Length ​ | 4,819 Feet | 
-^ Landing Field Length ​ | 4,232 Feet | 
  
 ===== Introduction To The Flightdeck ===== ===== Introduction To The Flightdeck =====
  
-{{:​wiki:​flight_deck.jpg?​700|}}+{{:​wiki:​flight_deck.jpg?​450|}}
  
 Take your time and look around the Cockpit for a bit. Read the panel names and get an idea where which panel is located. Lets start a bit of a tour through the flight deck of the Q400. Take your time and look around the Cockpit for a bit. Read the panel names and get an idea where which panel is located. Lets start a bit of a tour through the flight deck of the Q400.
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 To enter this altitude as MDA To enter this altitude as MDA
-   * Rotate the outer knob of the DH/MDA selector left of the PFD to "​MDA"​. ​Right click the outer ring or use your scroll wheel on the mouse and scroll up (finger moving upwards)+   * Rotate the outer knob of the DH/MDA selector left of the PFD to "​MDA"​. ​Point at the outer ring of the knob and use your mouse scroll wheel and and scroll up (finger moving upwards)
    * Now use the inner knob to change the value of the MDA    * Now use the inner knob to change the value of the MDA
    * Once you reach this altitude during the initial climb segment the MDA line on the altitude tape will turn blue, the "​MDA"​ label on the attitude indicator will disappear.    * Once you reach this altitude during the initial climb segment the MDA line on the altitude tape will turn blue, the "​MDA"​ label on the attitude indicator will disappear.
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 {{ :​wiki:​q400_efis_control_panel.jpg?​350|}} {{ :​wiki:​q400_efis_control_panel.jpg?​350|}}
  
-   ​* ​Left click the FORMAT button to view the **FULL MODE** of the navigation display, a north up plan mode +   ​* ​Click the FORMAT button to view the **FULL MODE** of the navigation display, a north up plan mode 
-   ​* ​Right click the **FORMAT** button ​to simulate a press and hold for 1 second. This option hides the flight plan and displays the localizer deflection instead.+   ​* ​Hold down the **FORMAT** button for 1 second. This option hides the flight plan and displays the localizer deflection instead.
    * Mouse over the **RANGE** knob and rotate your scroll wheel to increase or decrease the range on the map. Scroll down to close in on your aircraft, scroll up to increase the range and see further into the distance    * Mouse over the **RANGE** knob and rotate your scroll wheel to increase or decrease the range on the map. Scroll down to close in on your aircraft, scroll up to increase the range and see further into the distance
    * Click the **DATA** button multiple times to show navigation aids (NAV), airports (APT), both (NAV & APT) or neither on the map    * Click the **DATA** button multiple times to show navigation aids (NAV), airports (APT), both (NAV & APT) or neither on the map
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   * **ELEVATOR TRIM** indication - If you don't have a control axis assigned for this you can use the mouse wheel over the indicator to adjust the trim ND (nose down) or NU (nose up). When you have an analog axis assigned please be ready to retrim the aircraft when ever you change the position of the aircraft with the location dialog. If you don't assign an axis the trim will be set for takeoff, landing or cruise depending when you select these starting locations with the location dialog.   * **ELEVATOR TRIM** indication - If you don't have a control axis assigned for this you can use the mouse wheel over the indicator to adjust the trim ND (nose down) or NU (nose up). When you have an analog axis assigned please be ready to retrim the aircraft when ever you change the position of the aircraft with the location dialog. If you don't assign an axis the trim will be set for takeoff, landing or cruise depending when you select these starting locations with the location dialog.
   * **EMERG**ency/​Parking **BRAKE** lever - Click the lever to toggle the parking brake   * **EMERG**ency/​Parking **BRAKE** lever - Click the lever to toggle the parking brake
-  * **POWER** levers - currently cannot be adjusted by mouse but can be assigned in the control settings as "​Throttle"​ 1 and 2 as well as "​Thrust reverse"​ 1 and 2. The forward throttle controls the range from DISC to full RATING power with FLT IDLE being the minimum allowed position in flight. Reverse moves the levers aft of DISC towards FULL REV(erse). +  * **POWER** levers - can be assigned in the control settings as "​Throttle"​ 1 and 2 as well as "​Thrust reverse"​ 1 and 2. Both levers can be dragged with the mouse together by holding down the right mouse button or individually by holding down the left mouse button. The forward throttle controls the range from DISC to full RATING power with FLT IDLE being the minimum allowed position in flight. Reverse moves the levers aft of DISC towards FULL REV(erse). 
-  * **CONTROL LOCK** - click on the area of the power levers to set and remove the gust lock. This should only be done on ground as is locks the ailerons in neutral. When the power levers are advance to far the gust lock in Aerofly is automatically removed so that you can safely ​take off even if you forgot to remove the gust lock. +  * **CONTROL LOCK** - click on black bar in front of the power levers to set and remove the gust lock. This should only be done on ground as is locks the ailerons in neutral. When the power levers are advance to far the gust lock in Aerofly is automatically removed so that you can take off even if you forgot to remove the gust lock. 
-  * **PROP**eller levers - are also called "​condition levers"​ since they not only affect the propeller rotation speed but also the rating of the engine (maximum torque value). These levers can be assigned in the control settings as "​Propeller ​speed" 1 and 2 or can be adjusted with the mouse wheel and mouse buttonsWhen interacting ​with the mouse aim at the lower part of the lever, at the surface of the quadrant+  * **PROP**eller levers - are also called "​condition levers"​ since they not only affect the propeller rotation speed but also the rating of the engine (maximum torque value). These levers can be assigned in the control settings as "​Propeller ​Speed" 1 and 2 or can be adjusted with the mouse wheel. ​Both levers can also be dragged ​with the mouse: together by holding down the right mouse button or individually by holding down the left mouse button
-  * **FLAPS** lever - Affects the target position of the flaps. Flap 35 can only be recommended for very short runways, typically flaps 15 is plenty. The flap lever can be adjusted with the mouse scroll wheel and the left and right mouse buttons. There are also assignable axis or buttons for this lever in the control settings.+  * **FLAPS** lever - Affects the target position of the flaps. Flap 35 can only be recommended for very short runways, typically flaps 15 is plenty. The flap lever can be adjusted with the mouse scroll wheel or by holding down the left mouse button ​and moving the mouse to drag the lever. There are also assignable axis or buttons for the flaps in the control settings. Default key commands are "​F"​ and "​Shift+F"​.
  
 {{ :​wiki:​q400_quadrant.jpg |}} {{ :​wiki:​q400_quadrant.jpg |}}
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 Transponder status Transponder status
-   ​* ​Right click the lower right line select key (next to ATC1 label) to toggle the transponder mode from OFF to ON ALT and back.+   ​* ​Hold down the lower right line select key (next to ATC1 label) ​for one second ​to toggle the transponder mode from OFF to ON ALT and back.
  
 ATC/TCAS details ATC/TCAS details
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 Unlike most modern airlines the Q400 engineers decided that the altitude capture function should only engage when pilots explicitly press a button to arm it. Since it is very unique for an autopilot we modeled this in the Aerofly FS 2 aircraft but this also means that you have to **check if ALT SEL is armed in white on the PFD** every time you changed the selected altitude. Typically a press on the ALT SEL pushbutton is required when you are maintaining the current altitude and want to climb or descent to another altitude. Then another vertical mode has to be engaged and the selected altitude has to be changed and ALT SEL needs to be pushed. Unlike most modern airlines the Q400 engineers decided that the altitude capture function should only engage when pilots explicitly press a button to arm it. Since it is very unique for an autopilot we modeled this in the Aerofly FS 2 aircraft but this also means that you have to **check if ALT SEL is armed in white on the PFD** every time you changed the selected altitude. Typically a press on the ALT SEL pushbutton is required when you are maintaining the current altitude and want to climb or descent to another altitude. Then another vertical mode has to be engaged and the selected altitude has to be changed and ALT SEL needs to be pushed.
  
-On the upside, if you ever wish to prevent a level off you can disarm the altitude capture (ALT SEL) by holding the ALT SEL button for 1 second. In the Aerofly we currently model this with a right click due to technical reasons.+On the upside, if you ever wish to prevent a level off you can disarm the altitude capture (ALT SEL) by holding the ALT SEL button for 1 second.
  
 When ALT SEL is armed in white on the PFD the active vertical mode will change to ALT* (altitude acquire) to capture the altitude followed by ALT to maintain that altitude. When ALT SEL is armed in white on the PFD the active vertical mode will change to ALT* (altitude acquire) to capture the altitude followed by ALT to maintain that altitude.
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 VNAV PATH will engage once the vertical profile is intercepted. To intercept use any other vertical, e.g. vertical speed and either increment the descent rate if you are above profile or reduce sinkrate or even level off when the vertical deviation shows that the flight plan is above you. VNAV PATH will engage once the vertical profile is intercepted. To intercept use any other vertical, e.g. vertical speed and either increment the descent rate if you are above profile or reduce sinkrate or even level off when the vertical deviation shows that the flight plan is above you.
  
 +==== Flight Management System (FMS) ====
  
 +The Q400 uses the Universal FMS which is also used in the Learjet 45 and in the specific 737-500 simulated in Aerofly FS 2. The FMS is described in detail on the [[aircraft:​fms_flight_plan_tutorial|Universal UNS-1]] wiki page.
 +
 +{{ :​wiki:​q400_cdu.jpg?​300 |}}
 ==== Warning Sounds ==== ==== Warning Sounds ====
  
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 To enter this altitude as MDA To enter this altitude as MDA
-   * Rotate the outer knob of the DH/MDA selector left of the PFD to "​MDA"​. ​Right click the outer ring or use your scroll wheel on the mouse and scroll up (finger moving upwards)+   * Rotate the outer knob of the DH/MDA selector left of the PFD to "​MDA"​. ​Click the outer ring or use your scroll wheel on the mouse and scroll up (finger moving upwards)
    * Now use the inner knob to change the value of the MDA    * Now use the inner knob to change the value of the MDA
    * Once you reach this altitude during the initial climb segment the MDA line on the altitude tape will turn blue, the "​MDA"​ label on the attitude indicator will disappear.    * Once you reach this altitude during the initial climb segment the MDA line on the altitude tape will turn blue, the "​MDA"​ label on the attitude indicator will disappear.
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 | 2      | Pilot Panel | Switching Panel       | T/O WARN TEST    | ON then OFF     | No audible warning should sound | | 2      | Pilot Panel | Switching Panel       | T/O WARN TEST    | ON then OFF     | No audible warning should sound |
 | 3      | Pedestal ​   | WEATHER RADAR         | MODE             | ON              |                   | | 3      | Pedestal ​   | WEATHER RADAR         | MODE             | ON              |                   |
-| 4      | Pedestal ​   | ARCDU                 | ATC/​TCAS ​        | ON ALT          | Right click lower right line select button ​  |+| 4      | Pedestal ​   | ARCDU                 | ATC/​TCAS ​        | ON ALT          | Hold down the lower right line select button ​  |
  
 ==== Entering The Runway ==== ==== Entering The Runway ====
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-Remove the control lock by clicking ​in the area of the power levers again. Have a quick scan of the PFD and to check if the flight mode annunciator (top section of the PFD) is indicating either no modes what soever or WING LVL or HDG SEL as lateral mode and GA as vertical mode, ALT SEL armed in white.+Remove the control lock by clicking ​on the black bar in front of the power levers again. Have a quick scan of the PFD and to check if the flight mode annunciator (top section of the PFD) is indicating either no modes what soever or WING LVL or HDG SEL as lateral mode and GA as vertical mode, ALT SEL armed in white.
  
 We have now reached the takeoff configuration. When you set the aircraft onto the runway using the location dialog in the main menu almost all the steps above will be completed already. We have now reached the takeoff configuration. When you set the aircraft onto the runway using the location dialog in the main menu almost all the steps above will be completed already.
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 Try to hold the wings level and correct for any heading deviation, use only a slight bank angle (5°) to turn back onto the selected (runway) heading to fly a straight first segment. If you look closely on the screenshot above our heading has already deviated a few degrees to the left. We can follow the flight director bank commands which indicates a slight correction to the right is needed. Try to hold the wings level and correct for any heading deviation, use only a slight bank angle (5°) to turn back onto the selected (runway) heading to fly a straight first segment. If you look closely on the screenshot above our heading has already deviated a few degrees to the left. We can follow the flight director bank commands which indicates a slight correction to the right is needed.
  
-**Note** - Use rudder trim to correct for any side slip. With the 8 right clicks of rudder trim prior to takeoff the slip angle should be quite low but depending on power you might want to add a bit more to keep the aircraft flying straight.+**Note** - Use rudder trim to trim away any side slip. With the 8 right clicks of rudder trim prior to takeoff the slip angle should be quite low but depending on power you might want to add a bit more to keep the aircraft flying straight.
  
  
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 Once we are above to MDA marker and above the speed for flap retraction (V FRI), which is displayed as a solid cyan triangle on the speed tape, as displayed in the screenshot above, we are safe to retract the flaps. Once we are above to MDA marker and above the speed for flap retraction (V FRI), which is displayed as a solid cyan triangle on the speed tape, as displayed in the screenshot above, we are safe to retract the flaps.
-   * Use either your assigned key or button commands (e.g. Shift+F) or move your mouse cursor over the white flap handle and rotate the mouse wheel+   * Use either your assigned key or button commands (e.g. Shift+F) or move your mouse cursor over the white flap handle and rotate the mouse wheel or drag the flap lever with the left mouse button held down.
  
 The only thing left to do at this point, which we will have to monitor for the entire flight, is align the selected heading bug with our current heading. The only thing left to do at this point, which we will have to monitor for the entire flight, is align the selected heading bug with our current heading.
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    * Click the APPROACH and FLARE ligth switches in the overhead panel    * Click the APPROACH and FLARE ligth switches in the overhead panel
-   ​* ​Right click the FASTEN BELTS switch or rotate your mouse wheel over it to set it to off.+   ​* ​Use the mouse wheel to set the FASTEN BELTS switch ​to off.
  
 Above transition altitude (18,000ft in USA, about 5,000ft in Europe) push the BARO SET knob left of the PFD. This will set the pressure to 1013 hPa or 29.92 InHg (which at the current development state it already is). In this tutorial this won't be necessary as we are flying in the USA but stay below the 18 thousand feet anyway. Above transition altitude (18,000ft in USA, about 5,000ft in Europe) push the BARO SET knob left of the PFD. This will set the pressure to 1013 hPa or 29.92 InHg (which at the current development state it already is). In this tutorial this won't be necessary as we are flying in the USA but stay below the 18 thousand feet anyway.
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    * Look down and right to the EFIS Control Panel (forward and left of the throttle quadrant)    * Look down and right to the EFIS Control Panel (forward and left of the throttle quadrant)
-   ​* ​Right click the FORMAT button on that panel+   ​* ​Hold down the FORMAT button on that panel for one second
  
 As you can see on the screenshot we can see the deflection of the NAV1 receiver, currently tuned into 111.10 MHz (ILS1) and set to the course of 250°, displayed in the top right corner. This confirms we have the ILS tuned correctly and can use it in a second. As you can see on the screenshot we can see the deflection of the NAV1 receiver, currently tuned into 111.10 MHz (ILS1) and set to the course of 250°, displayed in the top right corner. This confirms we have the ILS tuned correctly and can use it in a second.
  
 To leave this view and return to the map mode either To leave this view and return to the map mode either
-   ​* ​Right click the FORMAT button again+   ​* ​Hold down the FORMAT button ​for one second ​again
    * Click the FORMAT button (due to a bug 2x currently)    * Click the FORMAT button (due to a bug 2x currently)
  
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 **Flaps 5 Degrees** **Flaps 5 Degrees**
  
-When the aircraft levels out onto the ILS course the glide slope should engage any second. We should be below 200kts, select flaps 5°. Use your assigned key or button commands (e.g. "​f"​ key) or your mouse wheel over the flaps lever. (I think you will find the white lever, we have used it two times before ​in the flight ​for takeoff)+When the aircraft levels out onto the ILS course the glide slope should engage any second. We should be below 200kts, select flaps 5°. Use your assigned key or button commands (e.g. "​f"​ key) or your mouse wheel over the flaps lever. (I think you will find the white lever now, we have used it before for the takeoff.)
 Continue slowing down to 160 kts. Continue slowing down to 160 kts.
  
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 Maintain a speed of around 135 kts now. The final approach reference speed (V-REF), as mentioned and set as V-Speed before, is around 122kts in this configuration. Time to run the landing checklist. Maintain a speed of around 135 kts now. The final approach reference speed (V-REF), as mentioned and set as V-Speed before, is around 122kts in this configuration. Time to run the landing checklist.
  
-**Note** - If you want to be even more realistic for this landing and use flaps 10 or want to test out flaps 35 remember to adjust the GPWS LANDING FLAP knob. The Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) will otherwise warn you about your flap configuration on short final. This is currently not modeled (6th August ​2017) but might be in the future.+**Note** - If you want to be even more realistic for this landing and use flaps 10 or want to test out flaps 35 remember to adjust the GPWS LANDING FLAP knob. The Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) will otherwise warn you about your flap configuration on short final. This alert is currently not modeled (20th August ​2018) but might be in the future.
  
  
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 | 1      | Front Panel | LANDING GEAR          | LANDING GEAR     | DOWN 3 GREEN    |                        | | 1      | Front Panel | LANDING GEAR          | LANDING GEAR     | DOWN 3 GREEN    |                        |
 | 2      | Pedestal ​   | Throttle Quadrant ​    | PROP LEVER 1&​2 ​  | MAX 1020        |                        | | 2      | Pedestal ​   | Throttle Quadrant ​    | PROP LEVER 1&​2 ​  | MAX 1020        |                        |
-| 3      | Pedestal ​   | Throttle Quadrant ​    | FLAPS            | SET/​INDICATING ​ | Select 15° and monitor extension ​ |+| 3      | Pedestal ​   | Throttle Quadrant ​    | FLAPS            | SET/​INDICATING ​ | Select 15° and verify position ​ |
 | 4      | Overhead ​   | AIR CONDITIONING ​     | BLEEDS ​          | ON/​MIN ​         |                        | | 4      | Overhead ​   | AIR CONDITIONING ​     | BLEEDS ​          | ON/​MIN ​         |                        |
  
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 **Flaps Up, Control Lock On** **Flaps Up, Control Lock On**
  
-   * Click in the area of the Power levers to engage ​the control lock. This will prevent wind gusts from deflecting the ailerons +   * Click the control lock to engage it. This will prevent wind gusts from deflecting the ailerons ​and also limits the power demand on the ground up to a certain point. 
-   * Mouse over the flap handle and scroll up to set the flaps up.+   * Mouse over the flap handle and scroll up to set the flaps up or use the key command "​Shift+F"​ three times.
  
  
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 **Transponder Standby, Weather Radar Standby** **Transponder Standby, Weather Radar Standby**
  
-   ​* ​Right click the lower right line select of the ARCDU1. This sets the ATC/TCAS to standby (SBY)+   ​* ​Hold down the lower right line select of the ARCDU1 ​for one second. This sets the ATC/TCAS to standby (SBY)
    * Mouse over the weather radar mode knob and rotate it to standby (STBY).    * Mouse over the weather radar mode knob and rotate it to standby (STBY).
  
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 | 9      | Pedestal ​   | FUEL CONTROL ​         | TANK 1&2 AUX PUMP | OFF            |                        | | 9      | Pedestal ​   | FUEL CONTROL ​         | TANK 1&2 AUX PUMP | OFF            |                        |
 | 10     | Pedestal ​   | WEATHER RADAR         | MODE             | STBY            |                        | | 10     | Pedestal ​   | WEATHER RADAR         | MODE             | STBY            |                        |
-| 11     | Pedestal ​   | ARCDU                 | ATC/​TCAS ​        | STANDBY ​        ​| ​Right click lower right line select button ​  |+| 11     | Pedestal ​   | ARCDU                 | ATC/​TCAS ​        | STANDBY ​        ​| ​Hold down lower right line select button ​  |
 | 12     | Overhead ​   | DC CONTROL ​           | MAIN BUS TIE     | TIE             ​| ​                       | | 12     | Overhead ​   | DC CONTROL ​           | MAIN BUS TIE     | TIE             ​| ​                       |
  
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 +
 +
 +===== V Speeds and Ranges =====
 +
 +[[aircraft:​basic_flight_information|What are the v-speeds?]]
 +
 +^ Speed Limits ​                     ^^
 +|Max Cruise Speed         |360 KIAS  |
 +|High Speed Cruise Speed  |349 KIAS  |
 +|Long Range Cruise Speed  |287 KIAS  |
 +
 +^Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo ^^
 +^ Altitude (up to) ^Speed (KNOTS) ​     ^
 +| 0 - 8,000        | 245               |
 +| 10,​000 ​          | 282               |
 +| 18,​000 ​          | 286               |
 +| 20,​000 ​          | 275               |
 +| 25,​000 ​          | 248               |
 +
 +
 +^Max Flaps Extend Speed (Vfe)                     ^^^^^
 +^ Position | 5        | 10       | 15      | 35       |
 +^ Speed    | 200 KIAS | 181 KIAS |172 KIAS | 158 KIAS |
 +
 +^ Minimum Control Speed (Vmca) ​                        ^^^^^
 +^ Flaps Position | 0        | 5       | 10      | 15       |
 +^ Speed          | 113 KIAS | 98 KIAS | 95 KIAS | 91 KIAS  |
 +
 +^ Va (Maneuvering) ​            | 204 KIAS |
 +^ Vlo (Landing Gear Operation) | 200 KIAS |
 +^ Vle (Landing Gear Extended) ​ | 215 KIAS |
 +^ Vra (Rough Air)              | 210 KIAS |
 +
 +
 +^ Takeoff Field Length ​ | 4,819 Feet |
 +^ Landing Field Length ​ | 4,232 Feet |
  
  
aircraft/dash8-q400.txt · Last modified: 2019/07/01 14:52 by jh