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aircraft:boeing_777-300er

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Boeing 777-300ER

The Boeing 777-300ER (Triple Seven) is one of the largest and heaviest twin-engine commercial aircraft. Impressively large and powerful are also the two GE90-115B engines, each delivering up to 512 kN thrust. In the 'ER' version, the Triple Seven can carry nearly 400 passengers up to 13,600 km. It is the first Boeing aircraft to be equipped with a Fly By Wire system.

Introduction to the Flightdeck

PFD

MFD

EFIS Control Panel

EICAS

Electronic Checklists

CDU


Flight Controls

Throttle and Reverser

Speed-Brake and Spoilers

Landing gear and Auto-Brake

Fly By Wire


Autopilot - MCP

The autopilot and flight director Mode Control Panel (MCP) in the Boeing 777 is located in the glare shield and is the human machine interface to the flight guidance system of this airliner. The autopilot of the B777 works similarly to the B747.

The MCP of this Boeing aircraft can be be split into several regions:
Auto Throttle, Speed, Heading, Vertical Speed, Altitude, Approach and Autopilot Masters

Overview of the buttons, switches and knobs:

  • F/D - Toggles visibility of Flight Director

Speed

  • A/T ARM - arms or disengages Auto Throttle
  • THR - Thrust Button reduces or increases thrust reference (THR REF)
  • SPD - Speed Button selects auto throttle speed (SPD)
  • IAS/MACH - Speed window that displays the selected airspeed, blanked if VNAV controls speed
  • SEL - Toggles between IAS and MACH display
  • Speed Knob - rotated to adjust selected speed, pushed for speed intervention
  • LNAV - Lateral NAVigation is engaged with this button
  • VNAV - Vertical NAVigation is engaged with this button
  • FLCH - Flight Level CHange button can be pressed to command a climb or descent towards selected altitude

Heading

  • HDG - Selected Heading window always showing the currently selected heading
  • HDG Knob - Changes the selected heading
  • SEL - Engages the selected heading mode (HDG SEL)
  • BANK LIMIT - Selector for the maximum bank angle for autopilot turns
  • HOLD - levels the aircraft and holds present heading (HDG HOLD)

Vertical Speed

  • VERT SPD - Selected vertical speed window. Blanked when active vertical mode is not vertical speed
  • Vertical Speed Wheel - used to nose down (increase sinkrate) or nose up (increase vertical speed)
  • VS - Engages Vertical Speed (VS) hold mode

Altitude

  • ALT - Selected altitude window
  • ALT knob - Rotated to increase or decrease selected altitude
  • HOLD - button to command an immediate level off and maintain present altitude (ALT HOLD)

Approach

  • LOC - Arms localizer capture only
  • APP - Arms localizer and glide slope capture or, if no ILS approach was programmed, arms LNAV and VNAV approach.

Autopilot Masters

  • A/P ENGAGE: L CMD, C CMD, R CMD engage the left, center and right autopilot command (CMD).
  • DISENGAGE - Disconnects all three autopilots

Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA)

The Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) can be found at the top of the primary flight display (PFD). From left to right it indicates:

  • Auto Throttle Mode: SPD, THR REF, IDLE, HOLD in green
  • Lateral Mode: ATT, LVL, HDG HOLD, HDG SEL, LNAV, LOC, TO/GA and ROLLOUT in green and armed lateral modes: LNAV, LOC, ROLLOUT in white
  • Vertical Mode: V/S, FLCH SPD, VNAV SPD, ALT, VNAV PTH, VNAV ALT, G/S, TO/GA in greeen and armed vertical modes: G/S, FLARE, VNAV

Directly underneath the status of the autopilot (CMD) and flight director (FD) are displayed as follows. When the autopilot is in control CMD is displayed above the attitude indicator. When all three autopilots are engaged for landing “LAND 3” is displayed. When no autopilot is active but the flight director left or right are still on the text “FD” is shown. When both flight directors are off as well as all autopilots no label is shown and the flight mode annunciator lateral and vertical modes vanish.

Flight Director

On the very far left and right of the MCP there are two switches for the Flight Director (F/D). They control the visibility of the flight directors on the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) for each side.

  • Click the left and right flight director switch with the left mouse button to set the flight directors on or off.

Basic Modes

When the first flight director is set to ON or the autopilot is engaged with the flight directors in the OFF position, the basic lateral and vertical mode are selected automatically.

On the ground the lateral and vertical modes TO/GA are selected. These guide the aircraft wings level and to the MCP speed + 10kts for takeoff.

The basic lateral mode is wings level (LVL) or bank hold (ATT) depending if the current bank angle is above 6° to either side. Wings level (LVL) is followed by heading hold (HDG HOLD) as soon as the bank angle is reduced to zero and the present heading at that time is maintained.

Vertically the basic mode is Vertical Speed hold (VS)

Lateral Modes

Lateral modes are controlling the aircraft's bank angle to steer the aircraft across the map left and right. One by one we are now going through all lateral modes that the Boeing 777 offers. But first let us visit the BANK LIMIT selector

BANK LIMIT

In most Boeing aircraft the pilot has the option to reduce the maximum bank angle of the aircraft when the autopilot is flying a turn. Available options in the Boeing 777 are: 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5 degrees and AUTO. In AUTO the flight director chooses it's own value, in the Aerofly this currently (as of 7th August 2017) is always 25 degrees.

  • Mouse over the outer ring of the heading select knob and rotate the mouse wheel to rotate the outer BANK LIMIT knob to the desired position.

Note - This is purely optional. If you leave it in AUTO you won't overshoot a turn and you turn around the quickest way possible (currently).

ATT

Attitude hold, or rather bank hold, since this is only a lateral mode, maintains the bank angle at engagement. To enter this mode the flight director has to be activated in the air above 6 degrees of bank. This is typically not a mode you would fly in for longer time.

LVL, HDG HOLD

After leveling the wings (LVL) the heading hold (HDG HOLD) mode engages. The heading at that time is maintained. To engage this mode:

  • Click the HOLD button underneath the heading selector. The button will illuminate once HDG HOLD is activated.

HDG SEL

Different to the HDG HOLD mode the HDG SEL lateral mode takes your selected heading into account. The the bank angle is adjusted up to the BANK LIMIT value to turn towards the target heading.

To turn towards a selected heading

  • Use the mouse wheel over the inner part of the heading select knob to adjust the selected heading in the window.
  • Click the “SEL” button at the tip of the knob to engage HDG SEL


TO/GA

The TakeOff GoAround lateral mode (TO/GA) commands wings level on the ground and runway heading after lift off. This mode is the default mode when you set the flight directors on while on the ground. In the air this mode is engaged by pressing the TO/GA button which can be assigned in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2.

LNAV

Lateral NAVigation (LNAV) is using the pre-programmed flight plan (can be created in the navigation dialog) to follow the route to the destination. It will make turns as needed.

Arming LNAV

  • A route must be near by to arm the LNAV mode.
  • Click the LNAV push button on the ground or in flight to arm LNAV. The LNAV push button will illuminate when LNAV is armed or engaged and on the FMA in the second line you can see LNAV armed in white.

Engaging LNAV

  • The current selected heading should intercept the flight plan
  • Then LNAV will engage once the flight plan can be captured in a turn
  • When the lateral deviation from the flight plan is small enough LNAV will engage right away (e.g. after lift off)

Disarming LNAV

  • Click the LNAV push button when LNAV is still armed in white on the FMA
  • If LNAV is engaged select another lateral mode, e.g. HDG HOLD (see above)

LOC

The localizer capture function requires the ILS receivers to be set to an ILS frequency. This is done fully automatic with the auto tuning but it requires a flight plan with to be programmed.

  • Click the LOC push button to arm the localizer only or
  • Click the APP push button to arm the localizer and glide slope for the ILS approach

Note - The armed status of the LOC can be seen on the FMA in the second line in white. Also the LOC or APP buttons illuminate.

To disarm the localizer capture

  • Click the LOC or APP button a second time, given they haven't engaged yet. If they have you need to select another mode. If G/S was already captured V/S will engage (see below).

Note - You can switch between LOC only and APP as long as they as the glide slope (G/S) is not captured yet.

ROLLOUT

ROLLOUT automatically arms below 1500ft RA when both LOC and G/S are captured. This lateral mode will maintain the ILS localizer on the ground with rudder. It is part of the fully automatic landing capability of this aircraft.

Vertical Modes

Vertical modes guide the aircraft up and down. They use the elevator of the aircraft to control the pitch which leads to a change in the flight path angle, ultimately controlling the altitude of the aircraft.

V/S

The Vertical Speed hold mode (V/S) compares the current vertical speed of the aircraft with the selected vertical speed in the VERT SPD window and uses the elevator to change the pitch and sink or climb rate.

  • Click the V/S pushbutton on the MCP to enter vertical speed mode
  • Mouse over the vertical wheel next to the button and rotate it with your mouse wheel. The aircraft will change it's attitude according to your mouse wheel, if you spin it down the nose will rise.

G/S

The Glide Slope (G/S) mode is used to neutralize the ILS glide slope deflection. It requires an ILS frequency to be set in the navigation receivers, currently those are tuned automatically if a flight route has been created.

  • Click the APP button on the MCP to arm the localizer and glide slope capture when an ILS is received

The glide slope captures when the glide slope diamond is moving towards the center. It can be intercepted from below or above.

Note - The glide slope can only capture after the localizer. The aircraft will not descent when it is not established on the localizer yet. Similarly, when the localizer signal is lost or the localizer deviates too much and the localizer tracking is lost then glide slope is disengaged as well. V/S engages instead.

FLARE

At 1500ft RA when LOC and G/S are captured the FLARE mode will arm, as can be seen on the PFD in the second line of the FMA. Together with the lateral ROLLOUT mode the FLARE mode will enable the aircraft to touch down on the runway, fully automatic. After touch down the FLARE mode disengages and no active mode is displayed to the pilots.

The mode cannot be selected manually, it can only be disengaged by the touch down or going around. Going around can be done with the TO/GA buttons. In this case the TO/GA vertical mode is engaged (see below).

ALT

The altitude hold mode (ALT) either engages automatically when the selected altitude is capturing or is activated by pressing the altitude HOLD button. The pitch of the aircraft is adjusted to stay on the target altitude.

  • Click the HOLD button underneath the selected altitude knob. The aircraft will immediately level off and fly back to the altitude at which the button has been clicked.
  • Click the HOLD button again to re-synchronize the target altitude with the current altitude

Note - When the HOLD button is illuminated the selected altitude knob above is not affecting the target altitude. When ALT engages from another vertical mode the selected altitude at the time of engagement. When ALT is manually selected the current altitude at engagement is used, not the selected altitude.

FLCH SPD

The Flight Level Change mode (FLCH) pitches the aircraft to maintain the selected speed in the MCP speed window.

  • Use your scroll wheel over the altitude knob to increase or decrease the selected altitude in the MCP ALT window
  • Click the FLCH button to engage the FLCH SPD mode
  • Mouse over the SPD select knob to change the target speed value in the MCP SPD window if necessary

Note - If you are not using auto throttle you need to either increase or decrease throttle for the climb or descent. The aircraft will not pitch down to gain speed if a higher altitude is selected than the aircraft is currently at. The same is true for the descent, the aircraft will not climb if a lower altitude is selected.

When the selected altitude is reached ALT engages and the selected altitude is captured automatically. Changing the selected altitude at this time has no effect, you need to push FLCH again to fly towards the newly selected altitude again.

TO/GA

The TakeOff GoAround mode (TO/GA) controls the pitch of the aircraft and works similar to FLCH in that regard. The speed in the MCP speed window is manually selected to the V2 speed. The guidance will use MCP + 10kts and re synchronize the selected speed with the current speed of the aircraft if it exceeds it significantly (e.g. due to a slow rotation).

To engage the TO/GA vertical mode

  • Turn on the flight directors on the ground
  • Press the assignable command “TakeOff GoAround button” during the approach to trigger a go around

VNAV

The Vertical NAVigation (VNAV) uses the vertical profile of the flight plan and guides the aircraft towards it. The aircraft can only climb towards the target altitude when the selected altitude is higher than the current altitude and it can only descent if the selected altitude is lower.

Note - VNAV requires the route to be near by and it is typically used together with LNAV to fly along the route and climb and descent on profile.

During the climb the target speed from the flight management system (FMS) is uses and VNAV SPD is displayed. In the descent the geometric vertical path of the flight plan is flown in VNAV PATH. When ever the aircraft is leveling off at the selected MPC altitude the mode VNAV ALT engages.

When the selected altitude matches the cruise altitude of the flight plan VNAV ALT is not engaged but VNAV PATH engages since the vertical profile is correctly intercepted. When the aircraft is in cruise and VNAV PATH has engaged the selected altitude can be decreased and the aircraft will descent automatically when the top of descent (TOD) is reached.

To summarize a typical VNAV profile looks like this: VNAV SPD to the selected MCP altitude (crz alt). VNAV PATH engages when the cruise altitude is captured. At the top of descent the aircraft automatically descents when the selected altitude is lower.

VNAV SPD

VNAV SPD works similar to FLCH SPD but the speed is managed by the FMS and the speed window is blanked.

To engage VNAV SPD:

  • Selected a higher altitude in the MCP altitude window. To do this move your mouse cursor over the altitude knob and use your scroll wheel.
  • If VNAV was already engaged before click the altitude select knob
  • If not: Press the VNAV button to engage VNAV.

Note - VNAV SPD can also be activated in the descent, when the aircraft is above the programmed vertical profile for example or when the speed is more important than the vertical path, e.g. when slowing down.

VNAV PATH

In the cruise phase the target altitude is the cruise altitude and after the top of descent the target altitude decreases towards the destination airport. VNAV PATH pitches up and down to stay at a this computed target altitude, typically with little or even idle thrust.

To arm the VNAV PATH descent when you are at cruise altitude:

  • Click the VNAV button. This will directly engage VNAV since the vertical profile is already hit

When you are in ALT, V/S or FLCH and are below the vertical profile and want to intercept it

  • Select a lower altitude
  • Press the VNAV button. This will arm VNAV in white on the flight mode annunciator. If you were in ALT before VNAV ALT will engage and the altitude will be maintained until you intercept the profile. If you were in FLCH you may want to consider switching to V/S and lower the descent rate to be able to intercept the profile. When you are in V/S the selected vertical speed is maintain until you intercept the profile.

When you are above the vertical profile and want to intercept it from above the profile

  • Decrease the selected altitude
  • Click the VNAV button to directly engage VNAV SPD for the descent
  • Extend speed brakes to increase the descent rate or to a speed intervention as described below

Altitude Intervention in VNAV ALT

When ever the MCP selected altitude is captured with VNAV active or armed VNAV ALT engages. This indicates that the climb or descent has been interrupted and the aircraft is no longer climbing or descending on profile.

  • Mouse over the selected altitude knob and rotate your mouse wheel to set a new selected altitude to climb or descent towards
  • Click the altitude knob to continue the climb or descent in VNAV SPD or VNAV PATH

Note - During the descent it is normal to level off at the MCP altitude to intercept the glide slope.

Speed Intervention

To manually select a speed when VNAV is active click the SPD knob for a speed intervention. The speed window opens and the current target speed is displayed. You can then select your own target airspeed.

  • Click the SPD knob to activate the speed intervention
  • Use your mouse wheel to change the target airspeed

To resume the FMS target speed

  • Click the SPD knob to end the speed intervention

LNAV/VNAV approach

When no ILS glide slope is available on the destination runway you can fly the approach with LNAV and VNAV.

  • Click the approach button (APPR) when no ILS is received to arm the LNAV/VNAV approach. LNAV and VNAV will engage as usual, except that VNAV is now allowed to descent below the selected altitude. The MCP altitude will not be captured in this mode

Auto Throttle

The Auto Throttle (A/T) in the Boeing 777 is engaging a clutch to move the throttle levers. Since your own control handles on the joystick or throttle lever are not actuated this immediately creates some complications.

Moving Your Control Device Throttle Levers With Auto Throttle Active

We recommend not touching your throttle levers when ever you use auto throttle. When Auto Throttle is controlling speed (SPD/MACH) you can move the levers and it will have no effect.

When Auto Throttle is in THR REF moving the throttle levers below about 30% will disengage auto throttle and you regain manual thrust control.

When Auto Throttle is in HOLD your throttle levers are ignored unless you move them by about 10%. Then your manual throttle position is taken into account.

When you use the TO/GA button (assignable in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2) on the ground you should move your throttle levers forward as well right away or leave them in the 50% range and not touch them until you are in the climb.

Reaching the selected altitude the auto throttle will go into SPD mode where you can move your device throttle levers to an intermediate position if desired.

When the auto throttle activates IDLE you can move your device throttles to idle as well. Just be quick about it or HOLD will already be engaged and you are suddenly moving the throttles to a forward position.

During the approach SPD is usually active again, then you can move the throttle all you want.

Engaging Auto Throttle

The Auto Throttle (A/T) is armed with the A/T ARM switch on the MCP. If that switch is off auto throttle will be off as well.

  • Click the A/T ARM switch to ARM. This arms the auto throttle and if you have VNAV active this will instantly engage the auto throttle system.
  • When you are in FLCH click the FLCH button again to engage the auto throttle in THR REF mode
  • When flight directors are off or the FMA shows V/S, ALT or G/S click the SPD button to engage the auto throttle in SPD mode

SPD/MACH

In this mode auto throttle is constantly adjusting the throttle levers to match the MCP target speed (could be blanked, then it is FMS speed).

  • Set A/T to armed by clicking the switch to the upper ARM position
  • Click SPD to set the auto throttle SPD mode
  • Use your mouse wheel over the SPD knob to adjust the target speed.

THR REF

In THR REF mode auto throttle is holding the maximum allowed thrust. This thrust is changed with from TOGA to CLB thrust upon reaching the thrust reduction altitude.

Note - You cannot engage auto throttle in THR REF mode when the Flight Directors (FD) are off. When A/T is in THR REF mode and you set both FDs to off the auto throttle will switch to SPD mode.

On the ground when A/T is armed (and F/D on) you can press the TakeOff GoAround Button as assigned in the control settings to engage THR REF. The auto throttle will spool up the engines to takeoff thrust and then disconnect from the levers (HOLD).

In the air, when you press the FLCH or VNAV button with A/T switch in the ARM position auto throttle will engage in THR REF mode.

Note - Moving your throttle levers to idle will disengage the auto throttle. It is still armed and will resume when you press FLCH for example.

THR

To change the thrust reference from TOGA to CLB prior to reaching the thrust reduction altitude you can press the THR button

  • Click the THR button to change the thrust reference from TOGA to CLB prematurely. The THR button will illuminate then.

IDLE

In this mode auto throttle is actively pulling back the throttle levers to idle. The IDLE mode is typically followed by HOLD.

Note - You cannot engage auto throttle in IDLE mode when the Flight Directors (FD) are off. When A/T is in IDLE mode and you set both FDs to off the auto throttle will switch to SPD mode.

  • Engagement in the air is possible by arming the auto throttle and clicking FLCH for the descent

HOLD

When the flight mode annunciator (FMA) on the primary flight display (PFD) shows “HOLD” the auto throttle has disconnected and you are can move your control thrust levers to any position you like. If you don't move them the current thrust is maintained.

Note - During the descent HOLD may switch back to SPD and then IDLE and back to HOLD when in VNAV. When auto throttle is in SPD moving your control device throttle levers has no effect.


Boeing 777-300ER Flight Tutorial

Quick and Dirty Flight

In a Boeing 777 following the route and climbing and descending is very easy. On the ground you set the flight directors to on and arm LNAV and VNAV and the auto throttle (A/T). On the runway you press the TakeOff GoAround (TOGA) button, which can be assigned in the control settings of the Aerofly FS 2, and take off manually. Right after lift off you can engage the autopilot and let if climb in VNAV SPD. Upon reaching the acceleration height the autopilot pitches the aircraft forward and you can retract the flaps. Reaching cruise altitude VNAV PATH engages. Prior to the top of descent you reduce the selected altitude and the aircraft will automatically descent on profile. Near the airport APP is pressed to arm the ILS. Configure the aircraft for landing and adjust the MCP speed window for the final approach to VREF and the aircraft can land on its own and come to a complete stop.

Our Tutorial Flight

We're going to fly from Denver (KDEN) to San Francisco (KSFO) today to demonstrate the B777 features. You can of course choose any origin and destination that you like and make the flight as long as you want or as short as you want.

This flight takes at least two hours when flown in real time but we'll skip a big portion of it since the cruise is quite monotonous. A typical flight in the B777-300ER would take probably ten hours and more so this is already considered a very short flight.

Required time for this tutorial flight:
Between 30min and 2.5h depending on how much of the flight you want to skip ahead.

We will depart from runway 25 at KDEN and fly direct to the destination. For KSFO we'll use the ILS 28L for landing. The cruise altitude is set to FL410.

If you don't want to mess with the flight management system and the CDU you can set up this route with a few steps in the navigation dialog.

  • From the main menu open the navigation dialog
  • Click on Denver on the map. Select RWY 25 for departure.
  • Click on San Francisco on the map, select ILS 26L for the arrival.

Start Location

From the main menu open the location dialog and click on Denver on the map. On the airport diagram that opens select the parking position on the west side of the airport. From there we only have to turn right and follow the taxiway to runway 25.

Start the flight.

Look down and set the parking brake to prevent the aircraft from rolling away. On the EICAS screen you should see a white “PARK BRAKE SET” memo whenever the parking brake is set.


Preflight

We'll now set up the aircraft for the flight step by step. We'll begin with the optional CDU flight preparations, then continue with the (mandatory) MCP preflight and then finish with the preflight checks.

(Optional) CDU Preflight

You can skip this next step if you already set up the route with the Aerofly FS navigation map from the main menu!

TAKEOFF REF

  • Press the INIT REF button on the CDU.

One of the reference pages should open.

  • Select the INDEX option in the lower left to see the INIT/REF INDEX page.

The index page is the main menu for the initialization and reference page. From here you can jump to any of those pages.

INIT/REF INDEX

  • Select the POS INIT page by pressing the line select key next to POS

POS INIT

On the position initialization page

  • type in “KDEN”
  • and insert that text into the REF AIRPORT field.

Since we're starting at the ramp we'll leave the gate field empty.

The inertial reference system (IRS) is already aligned, so no further action is needed.

PERF INIT

  • Go to the INIT/REF INDEX page as shown earlier.
  • Select the PERF INIT (performance initialization) from the index page.

This page should already be filled. Later on you may have to insert the values there. These current values are subject to change.

RTE

  • Press the RTE button to display the route page.
  • Type “KDEN” into the scratchpad and click the the line select key next to ORIGIN to insert it.
  • Type “25” and insert it into the RUNWAY field.
  • Enter KSFO in the DEST (destination) field.

This doesn't yet modify the route. We'll have to activate the new route and then execute the changes.

  • Select ACTIVATE
  • Press the EXEC (execute) button

DEP/ARR

We're now going to select the departure from KDEN and arrival into KSFO.

  • Click the DEP/ARR button
  • Select DEP (departure) on the left side
  • Click on the line select key next to the runway 25 to select it. Scroll down with the NEXT PAGE button if needed.
  • Click the DEP/ARR button again
  • Click the ARR option next to the destination airport (KSFO).
  • Select the runway 28R or 28L. 28L will allow us to fly an ILS approach later. This can be changed during flight.
  • Execute these changes to activate the new departure and arrival runways.

TAKEOFF REF

  • Press the INIT/REF button
  • If needed go to the index page to select the TAKEOFF REF (takeoff reference) page.

Flaps 15 is selected as takeoff flaps per default in Aerofly FS. You can change this by entering “5” or “20” and inserting that text into the FLAP field.

Take note of the v-speeds on the right of the aircraft. For this flight we'll use the suggested V1 135 kt, VR 140 kt and V2 150 kt speeds.

Also take note of the pitch trim setting, in this case 4.0 units.

THRUST LIM

  • Press the INIT/REF button.
  • Open the THRUST LIM (thrust limit) page via INIT/REF INDEX menu if you're not already on it.

For this flight we're not going to use a reduced takeoff thrust. But if you want to you can reduce the takeoff thrust by selecting an assumed temperature:

  • Type in 50 for +50°C assumed temperature.
  • Insert that into the “SEL” field in the top left corner
  • Select CLB 1 on the right side to arm a reduced climb thrust rating

On the EICAS screen at the very top above the engine N1 display you should now see a “D-TO 2 +50C” text.

However for the tutorial flight we're going to select the standard takeoff rating.

  • Select TO on the left
  • Arm CLB 1 for the climb. This will activate at the thrust reduction altitude once we are in the air.

On the EICAS you should now see a green “TO” text above the engine N1. The green thrust limit indicators on the engine N1 scales should have gone up.

The final thrust is determined by the thrust lever position only. When you use the autothrottle then the ATHR will move your thrust levers to the selected thrust limit position. Disengage the autothrottle and advance the thrust levers to the maximum if you need more thrust. You can also press the TOGA button multiple times to cancel any thrust limits and go to maximum available go around thrust (GA).

During the climb if you want to keep the autothrottle engaged you need to come back to this THRUST LIM page to adjust the climb thrust limit. E.g. select CLB if you want to climb at a higher rate.

VNAV

  • Press the VNAV button to display the VNAV pages
  • You can step through the phases CLB, CRZ and DES with the PREV PAGE and NEXT PAGE buttons as needed

On this page you can adjust the cruise altitude during the flight. It should display FL410 at the moment since we selected that earlier.

  • Check the transition altitude. It should be set to 18000ft for our flight.
  • We're also going to keep the speed restriction of 240 KIAS below 10000ft.

FIX INFO

The B777 (and A320 and B747,…) have the ability to draw lines and rings on the navigation display. We're going to use this for reference for our extended runway centerline and to judge the distance to the runway.

  • Press the FIX button to open the FIX INFO page.
  • Type “KDEN25” for runway 25 at Denver airport into the scratchpad and select the line select key 1L to insert it into the FIX field.
  • Type “262/10” and fill that into the BRG/DIS (bearing/distance) field to select a bearing of 262° (runway heading) and 10NM range.

The navigation display should then show the radial and range ring.

We're now finished with the optional CDU preflight settings.


MCP Preflight

We're now going to set up the mode control panel (MCP) for takeoff.

  • Start by selecting the flight directors (F/D) to ON for the left and right side.
  • Change the selected airspeed (IAS) to the V2 speed 150. You can see your current V2 speed by opening the CDU TAKEOFF REF page, which is displayed per default.
  • Rotate the selected heading (HDG) to the runway heading, in this case 262°.
  • Change the selected altitude to at least 1000ft above field elevation. We're going to set the cruise altitude right away, 41000.

  • Press the LNAV and VNAV button to arm the lateral and vertical guidance after takeoff.

Before Start

Before Start Checks

We're going to use the electronic checklists in the B777.

  • Open the checklist page by pressing the CHKL button

Note: The following interactions are temporary solutions. This will probably change with upcoming updates.

Move the mouse cursor over the lower center screen and hold down the left mouse button to move the magenta cursor on the display. To perform a click action on the screen click the Boeing 777 logo above the screen.

On a touch device simply touch the screen and drag the cursor that way. In VR you'll have to use a grab gesture.

  • Move the magenta display cursor over the NORMAL MENU button in the top left corner of the screen.
  • Click on the Boeing 777 logo to click the button on the screen
  • Move the magenta display cursor over the BEFORE START button and click it (via B777 logo)

The cursor should move to the first unchecked item automatically.

  • Perform the highlighted checklist item
  • Click the B777 logo to check the item in the electronic checklist
  • The cursor automatically advances
  • Keep going through the checklist until the cursor jumps to the NORMAL button.
  • Press the NORMAL button to see the next checklist

If you want to go back or open a different checklist you can also use the NORMAL MENU.

Complete the >BEFORE START< checklist

The MCP (mode control panel) was just set up in the previous step. We used V2 152, HDG 262, ALT 41000

Takeoff speeds are visible on the TAKEOFF REF page

  • Click the INIT REF button on the CDU.
  • If the CDU doesn't display the TAKEOFF REF page you have to select the INDEX option and then select the TAKEOFF REF option.

The TAKEOFF REF shows us the v-speeds: V1 135, VR 140, V2 150. Keep this page open.

The CDU preflight was done at the beginning or skipped by using the Aerofly FS route planner.

Pitch trim will be 4.0 units. Use the alternate pitch trim lever on the center console or the pitch trim switches on the yoke or your assigned commands to change the pitch trim to 4.0. The trim is already at that setting per default. Rudder and Aileron trim should be zero.

  • After completing the checklist click the NORMAL button.

Before Taxi

The >BEFORE TAXI< checklist should open automatically on the electronic checklist page. Otherwise you can select it from the NORMAL MENU.

  • Complete the BEFORE TAXI checklist now.
  • Keep pressing the B777 logo to advance the cursor and perform the actions that are displayed.

  • Set the autobrake to the rejected takeoff position (RTO)

  • Perform a flight control check
  • Set flaps to 15 units.
  • Turn on the taxi light

Taxi

Release the parking brake and advance the thrust levers a bit to start rolling. Make two right turns and one left turn and head south towards the runway 25. Stop in front of the runway at the hold short lines.

Before Takeoff

Let's quickly go through the before takeoff checklist:

  • Flaps set to the takeoff position. We're planing to use flaps 15 and they are indeed set for takeoff

Line up on the runway now.

  • Set the landing lights on.
  • Set the runway turn off lights on.
  • Set the strobe lights to on.

Takeoff

Let's take off.

  • Advance the thrust levers to roughly 50% N1
  • Wait until both engines have spooled up to the that target to avoid asymmetric thrust
  • Press the TOGA buttons on the thrust levers or use your assigned TOGA buttons.
  • Monitor how the autothrottle advances the thrust to the selected takeoff thrust limit

The aircraft accelerates

  • Maintain the centerline with your rudder inputs
  • Keep the yoke neutral

At 80kts the autothrottle mode changes to HOLD. The autothrottle is no longer powered and you have full manual control over the thrust. Do not change your throttle levers now unless you want to abort the landing or command a different thrust.

Past V1 you're no longer able to stop on the runway, take your hands off the throttle.

Airspeed is approaching VR

  • Gently pull back on the elevator, keep pulling

Eventually the aircraft lifts off and you can see a positive climb rate

  • Retract the landing gear. Default key command is 'g'. You can also click the gear lever.
  • Pitch up further and follow the magenta flight director bars on the primary flight display
  • At roughly 50ft LNAV should engage automatically. You can turn slightly left to stay on the flight plan when it's convenient.
  • Engage the autopilot. Default command is 'a'. You can also press either A/P button on the MCP (mode control panel).

After Takeoff

At 400ft VNAV will engage. The autothrottle turns back on in THR REF mode.

At 1000ft the autopilot pitches forward to pick up speed. The autothrottle reduces the thrust to climb. We armed CLB 1 earlier, this reduced climb thrust is now activated.

  • Once you are above the speed labeled “15” you can retract flaps 15.
  • When above the speed labeled “5” you can proceed to retract flaps 5.
  • Above the “1” speed retract flaps to up.

Let's quickly run the after takeoff checklist.

  • Turn the taxi light off.
  • Let the autopilot accelerate the aircraft to 250 knots.

Climb

During the climb we'll pass through 10,000ft and 18,000ft (transition height). The autopilot pitches forward and accelerates the aircraft to climb speed.

At 10,000ft

  • Turn the external lights off. (Leave the strobe lights on)
  • Turn the seat belt signs to off.

Transition Altitude

Reaching 18,000ft (transition altitude in the U.S.) we're switching all three altimeters to standard pressure

  • On the left and right EFIS control panels push the STD button
  • On the integrated standby flight display (ISFD) (small backup display) use the pushbutton on the set knob to set the pressure to STD.

Cruise

Sit back and relax?

With LNAV and VNAV engaged the autopilot will follow the flight plan and also level off at the selected cruise altitude of FL410. There is no action required at this point except monitoring the flight progress.

Or just teleport?

You can go back to the main menu now and open the location dialog. Zoom out on the map and drag the map across so that you see the route up ahead.

Click on a point east of the airfields Lee Vining and Bryant Field. In case that you're not already at 41,000ft drag the altitude slider on the right to set 41,000ft. Drag the heading to line up with the route.

Resume the flight and immediately press 'a' to re-engage the autopilot. LNAV/VNAV should engage right away and after a short time the aircraft should stabilize itself at cruise altitude. We can now proceed with the pre-decent preparations.

Pre-Descent

VREF

The reference approach speed (VREF) will be 145 for flaps 30. You can select a different value in the CDU.

  • Press the INIT/REF button on the CDU
  • The APPROACH REF page should open. Otherwise use the INDEX menu as shown before.
  • Verify the gross weight for landing and adjust it if needed

On the right side of the APPROACH REF page you can see suggested approach flaps and the associated VREF.

  • Type in the flaps position you want to use and the approach speed, e.g. “30/145”.
  • You can also pick one of the suggestions by pressing the line select key next to it. This copies the text into your scratchpad so you don't have to type everything. You can adjust the text as needed (e.g. using the CLR button)
  • Insert the text into the field FLAP/SPEED

Minimums

For the decision height we're going to select a minimum radar height of 100ft. This should already be set per default. However, here is how you would adjust that setting:

On the EFIS control panel

  • Rotate the MIN BARO/RAD outer ring selector to the RAD (radar altitmeter) position (or BARO for the barometric minimum)
  • Rotate the inner knob to adjust the selected setting.

>PRE-DESCENT< Checklist

Let's open the electronic checklist again by pressing the CHKL button as shown before and go through the pre-descent checklist.

  • Rotate the autobrake knob to the setting 2.
  • The landing data is set, VREF 145, Minimums DH 100ft.

Click the NORMAL button on the checklist screen to advance to the approach checklist for later.

Approach briefing

We'll fly the ILS approach for runway 28L at San Francisco. The autopilot is programmed to take us down to 3000ft on LNAV to the final approach fix from where we can intercept the localizer and glide slope easily. We're already on an intercept heading at this time. We'll use the autopilot to fly the approach until about 1000ft above ground, then land manually. Wind is calm.

Descent

  • Reduce the selected altitude by rotating the altitude knob on the MCP.
  • Select 3000ft.
  • Turn the seat belt signs on to get everyone seated and to signal the cabin to prepare the cabin for landing.
  • Address the passengers that you are landing. Alternatively scream as loud as you can “WE'RE DESCENDING NOW”.

When the aircraft is flying in VNAV PTH (vertical navigation path) as shown on the PFD (primary flight display) in the top right corner, then the autopilot will automatically descent at the calculated top of descent point.

If you want to start descending immediately you can either push the altitude knob in or push the FLCH button. When you push the altitude knob in the aircraft will fly a shallow descent until it intercepts the programmed descent path again. With FLCH the aircraft will switch to flight level change and just fly towards the selected altitude with either idle thrust (descent) or climb thrust (climb, not applicable here).

In case you flew past the calculated top of descent point the autopilot switches into VNAV ALT mode. To correct this and to descent

  • reduce the selected altitude and
  • push the altitude knob in. Or push the FLCH button
  • Consider extending the speedbrake to catch up with the pre-computed idle descent profile.

The aircraft will descent for quite a while. Monitor the vertical deviation on the navigation display and

  • extend the speedbrake as needed to slow down.
  • Retract the speedbrake when you notice that the autothrottle is increasing thrust.

For the majority of the descent you want to use idle thrust and as little speedbrake as possible to save fuel. If you need speedbrake that is a sign that you already wasted fuel before. If you need additional thrust during the descent it means that you waste fuel by flying lower than the most economical cruise altitude.

Note: You can also increase or decrease the speed. Push in the speed knob and rotate it to select a speed for the descent. When you fly slower you will glide further (up to a certain point). When you increase the speed you will descent steeper.

Approach

We're getting closer to our destination. It's time to prepare for the ILS28L approach into San Francisco. In the preflight we already loaded the approach with the CDU. Now the ILS frequency should be auto-tuned to 109.55 MHz and a the course should be set to 265°. On the primary flight display a white ISFO text with a DME distance should appear, together with scales for the localizer and glide slope as well as magenta diamonds for the ILS localizer and glide slope deviations.

The autopilot will level us off at 3000ft and VNAV will start reducing the target speed for the approach. The speed will now reduce quickly. We have to extend the flaps to fly this slow. On the primary flight display you will see the speeds UP, 1, 5, 15, etc. appear on the speed tape. When you fly close to one of these speeds or when the speed you should extend the next flap position. E.g. when you fly near the up speed “UP” you should extend to flaps 1. When you fly at or below the speed “1” you should extend flaps to 5.

Once a flap is extended VNAV will reduce the target speed further to slow us down. But the autothrottle will always keep us at a safe speed. Continue to extend flaps to the position 15.

  • Extend the flaps either by grabbing the flap handle with the mouse, vr-hand controller or by dragging it on a touch screen
  • OR push the assigned buttons (default key 'f' for flap extension).

Let's verify that we didn't forget anything with the electronic approach checklist. Open the electronic checklist again by pressing the CHKL button as shown before. Press the NORMAL button once all items are completed to advance to the landing checklist for later.

Once ISFO is identified on the PFD and the received signals appear to be valid

  • Push the APP button on the MCP. This arms the localizer and glide slope capture for the autopilot

Landing

When the aircraft path intercepts the localizer signal the autopilot lateral mode will change to LOC. The autopilot turns the aircraft onto the approach course and tracks the localizer.

After the localizer is captured the glide slope can also be capture when it's intercepted. The vertical mode will change to GS.

USE CAUTION
Once the glide slope captures the autopilot selected speed will no longer be managed by the VNAV. You have to manually adjust the speed.
  • Select the approach reference speed of 145 knots with the speed knob on the MCP.
  • Select gear down to decelerate quicker.
  • Extend flaps all the way to 30. Either grab the flap lever and drag it down or use the assigned keys (default 'k').
  • Make sure that the autothrottle is still active and that SPD is announced in the top left corner of your PFD (primary flight display)

When the landing gear is down

  • Arm the ground spoilers by clicking or tapping on the speedbrake lever. You can also grab the lever and pull it a tiny bit to set it to the ARM position.
  • Check that SPEEDBRAKE ARMED is written on the EICAS screen.
  • Set all external lights on (except wing lights).

The aircraft should be on localizer and glide slope at this point and the autopilot is still flying. We're cleared for landing.

Landing checklist

The landing checklist should be completed at this point. We'll read through to make sure. After completion hide the checklist again for landing by pressing the CHKL button again.

With the localizer and glide slope captured the autopilot will fly us all the way to touch down. But we won't let the airplane have all the fun and disconnect the autopilot when the approach looks stabilized, e.g. at 1000ft above the runway.

Fly the aircraft to the runway 28L touch down point - the big white rectangles on the runway, next to the white/red papi lights. The aircraft should be well trimmed so that only small corrections are needed.

After touch down

  • immediately apply reverse thrust to reduce the wear on the brakes and to help us slow down quicker.
  • At 70 kts slowly reduce the reversers, stow them below 60.
  • Cancel the autobrake by pushing the assigned key briefly (default key is 'b' for brakes) or apply pressure to your rudder pedal brakes. You can also rotate the knob to DISARM or OFF and you could also fully retract the speedbrake lever. You can also briefly advance the thrust levers to automatically retract the lever.

Vacate the runway to the left at the next convenient high speed taxiway.

  • Turn off the landing lights and runway turn off lights, make sure the taxi light stays on.
  • Retract the flaps.
  • Move the speedbrake lever to the down position.
  • Stop the timer.

Take a right to continue in the same direction that you landed.

In Case of a Go-Around

  • Push the TOGA button on the thrust levers as shown for the takeoff
  • Push it a second time if you need extra thrust
  • Pitch up gently but still quickly to start climbing again
  • Retract flaps to position 15.
  • Disarm the spoilers.
  • Select an appropriate go-around speed in the MCP, e.g. 200kts.
  • Engage the autopilot and either continue on the go-around track that was automatically set when you pressed the TOGA buttons or press the HDG HOLD button to stay on current heading or use HDG SEL to turn to a specific heading.
  • Let the autopilot capture the go-around altitude.
  • Decide further actions.

Fully Automatic Landing

The fully automatic landing can only be performed on an ILS equipped runway and only when the localizer is not at an offset angle. In our case the localizer is at an angle to the runway 28L at KSFO and we won't be able to use it for the entire landing. The ILS receivers have to be tuned to the ILS frequency for the approach. The auto tuning function does automatically this for us when we come close to the destination runway. During the landing the autopilot will control the lateral alignment with the runway and the descent towards the touch down point on the runway. The autopilot will flare the aircraft and use the steering to stay on the centerline. However the autopilot cannot control functions other than aileron, elevator and rudder (nose wheel steering). This means we as pilots have to manage all the remaining systems like flaps, spoilers, reverse, braking.

Configure for a normal landing but keep the autopilot and auto-throttles engaged. Arm the ground spoilers and set the autobrake to the required setting (e.g. 2 or 3). Check the minimums and altimeters and notes. Set the flaps and reduce the speed to final approach speed by adjusting the speed target in the MCP.

Now let's arm the ILS approach

  • Click the APP button on the MCP when you receive the ILS localizer and glide slope

When the trajectory of the aircraft intercepts the localizer, the LOC-mode will engage. The G/S mode will engage shortly after, once the glide slope is intercepted.

At 1500ft RA the ROLLOUT and FLARE modes are automatically armed which can be observed on the upper part of the PFD, the flight mode annunciator (FMA).

At around 50ft the FLARE mode will engage and touch down the aircraft. At roughly 20ft the auto throttle pulls the throttle levers back to IDLE.

At touch down the ROLLOUT mode activates and keeps the aircraft on the runway. When the ground spoilers have been armed they will extend automatically. Apply reverse thrust as needed. The auto-brake will engage shortly after the spoiler extension if it was set. Otherwise use manual braking.

We can take over manual control again at this point. Disengage the autopilot with the push-button on the yoke (can be assigned in the joystick settings) or the autopilot disengage bar on the MCP.

  • Click the AP DISENGAGE bar on the MCP or use your ap disconnect button or key.

Exit the runway as usual.

After landing

Exit the runway to the left once the speed has decreased enough. Taxi straight ahead in the same direction as you landed and turn to the left at the end of the terminal buildings, follow the taxiway all the way to the end where it bends around behind the end of the terminal buildings and the parked Airbus A380.

Find a good parking spot, e.g. the one next to the A380.

Shut Down

Secure

Final Words

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aircraft/boeing_777-300er.1579255604.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/01/17 11:06 by jh