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aircraft:airbus_a320

Airbus A320-214

V Speeds and Ranges

Speed Limits

Vmo Max Operating Speed 350 KIAS
Mmo Max Operating Speed .82M
Vlo Max Gear Extension 250 KIAS
Vlo Max Gear Retraction 220 KIAS
Vle Max Gear Extended 280 KIAS / .67M
Turbulence Penetration At or Above 20,000 FT Below 20,000 FT
A320 275 KIAS / .76M 250 KIAS
Max Flaps / Slats (Vfe)
Model Position 1 1+F 2 3 Full
A320 Vfe 230 KIAS 215 KIAS 200 KIAS 185 KIAS 177 KIAS

Speeds

Cockpit Window Open Speed Maximum - 200 KIAS

Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/Mach)
Speed Pressure Altitude (1000 FT)
SL 10.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 30.0 39.0
*Va 248 250 260 270 280 290 295 .78
Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KAIS)
Config 1 1+F 2 3 FULL
Vfe 230 215 200 185 177
Slats 18 18 22 22 27
Flaps 0 10 15 20 40
Remarks Initial TakeoffTakeoff/Takeoff/ApproachLanding
Approach ApproachLanding

Takeoff with Flaps 1 When flap configuration 1 is selected for takeoff flaps and slats are extended (1 + F), the configuration automatically changes to 1 at 210 KIAS, retracting the flaps and leaving only the slats extended.

Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3 When configuration 1 is selected from flap setting 2 or higher, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS. The Flaps automatically retract at 210 KIAS resulting in the configuration 1 (only slats)

Flaps Selection in Flight When the Flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the Slats are extended (CONF 1).

Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH)
Retraction (Vlo) 220
Extension (Vlo) 250
Extended (Vle) 280 / .67
Maximum Tire Speed 195 Knots Groundspeed
Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/Mmo
Speed Pressure Altitude
SL-25,000 25,000 - 39,000
Vmo/Mmo 350 .82

Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca Vmca - 119 KIAS

Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg Vmcg - 114 KIAS

Operating Speeds (KIAS/MACH)
Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative) ECON CLIMB
Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative)
FL290 and Above .78
10,000 FT to FL290 290
Best Climb Rate 280
Best Climb Angle 220
Optimum Cruise (ECON) Cost Index=35
Standard Cruise
FL310 and Above .80
10,00 FT to FS310 300
Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative) ECON DES
Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative).78
10,000 FT and Above 280

Stall Speeds

Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only
Gross WeightFlap Position
(1,000 Lbs) 0 1 1+F 2 3 FULL
170 179 140 134 125 124 121
160 170 136 130 120 119 117
150 161 132 125 116 115 113
140 154 127 119 112 111 109
130 144 121 115 108 107 105
120 138 116 110 104 103 101
110 132 111 105 99 98 96
100 126 106 100 95 94 92
90 119 100 95 90 89 87
80 114 95 90 85 84 82

Taxi Speed - Maximum When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 KTS in a turn.

A320 Beginners Tutorial

The Airbus A320 is a very complex modern airliner which is quite common on airports around the globe. Chances are high that you already flew with this aircraft in the past. The Aerofly simulation of this aircraft is very complex but due to the aircraft's automation it is very suitable for beginners as well.

We split this tutorial into several parts, first we are going to do a short flight explaining just the essential things that you have to do in Aerofly to fly the A320 from one place to another. After that we are going to go into more detail about this aircraft to explore all the features that are offered.

First we are going to do a very short flight from Sacramento to San Francisco. This flight only takes a few minutes and there aren't actually that many things we need to do fly this quick hop. So this first flight is clearly aimed at beginners and leaves out many things that a real pilot would need to do as well. We're just doing the bare minimum for now.

We recommend setting all wind sliders to zero, removing all clouds and setting daytime for the beginner tutorial.

Selecting The Airbus A320

From the main menu of the Aerofly FS 2

  • Click the Aircraft button in the main menu
  • Use your scroll wheel to rotate through the aircraft list.
  • Stop at the A320 and click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.

Selecting The Starting Point

We are going to fly from Sacramento International to San Francisco International airport.

Open The Location Dialog

From the main menu

  • Click the Location button.

You should now see a map around your current aircraft position. We now select the Sacramento Intl. airport as our new position. Select the runway 16R facing South. Here is how that is done:

Select Sacramento Intl On The Map

In the location menu

  • Point your mouse cursor at the map and use your scroll wheel to zoom in and out
  • Hold the mouse down and move the mouse to drag the map around
  • Find the San Francisco area and click on the Sacramento Intl airport

Hint - You don't have to zoom in on the map to be able to select the correct runway.

Select Runway 16R

Once you clicked on Sacramento an airport diagram will display.

  • Click on the green aircraft on the runway 16R facing down.
  • Click the back arrow in the top left corner to return to the main menu.

The aircraft is now already prepared for takeoff on RWY16R and we could begin our flight. But first we need a flight plan so that we can use the autopilot to fly to San Francisco all on its own.

Setting Up The Flight Plan

Now that the aircraft is now already placed on the correct departure runway it is quite easy to create the route.

From the main menu

  • Click the Navigation button


Delete Old Flight Plan

If you have any previous route you have to delete it first.

  • Click the route reset button in the top right corner.

Select Sacramento As Starting Point

On the navigation menu map or in the right hand column click the Sacramento Intl airport.

Select Runway 16R

  • Click the departing aircraft symbol next to RWY 16 R

Select San Francisco Intl.

In the map area hold down your mouse button and move then move the mouse to drag the map. Move the map over to San Francisco, which is South-West (down and left) from the current position.

Once you see San Francisco Intl. on the map click it.

Select Runway 28R for landing

In the right hand column

  • click the landing aircraft symbol for runway 28R.

Summary

We selected Sacramento, then runway 16R. After that we moved over to San Francisco and selected runway 18R. The route is now complete for our purposes. Click the back arrow to get back to the main menu.

Takeoff

In the main menu click the Start button to begin the flight.

Before Takeoff Checks

You should now see the cockpit of the A320 and everything should be ready to go. Please compare the aircraft state that you have with the highlighted areas of the screenshot below. Please quickly verify the following items:

  • The Display in front of you shows “CLB” and “NAV” in blue.
  • Flaps are set to “1+F” as seen on the center display
  • The T.O. Checklist is all green, no blue item
  • In the autopilot panel everything is dashed (—*) and 12000 (give or take 2000ft) is shown in the altitude window.

This should all be completed when placing the aircraft on the runway. If anything does look off please set the aircraft to the runway starting position again, as shown earlier. Make sure that if you have analog inputs for flaps or spoilers, that these are set to the takeoff position!

The aircraft should look like this now. If it doesn't even after repeated attempts please contact our support or visit the forums for help.

Taking Off

The takeoff has to be flown manually.

  • Advance your throttle input to full forward.
  • Use rudder to maintain the center line, very little inputs should be required for this.

When the airspeed reaches the blue circle gently pull back on the elevator to lift the nose up. Continue gently pulling up until the green horizontal bar is centered, at about 18 degrees nose up.

Gear Up

  • Press the “g” key on your keyboard or click the gear lever to retract the landing gear.

or

  • Click the gear lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse up to drag the gear lever up.

Autopilot On

Press the “a” key on your keyboard or press the autopilot (AP1) button.

Climb

LVR CLB Flashing

At about 1500 feet above the runway a white “LVR CLB” (lever climb) text will start flashing on the primary flight display in front of you. At this point the thrust should reduced for climb thrust because the engines can only maintain the takeoff thrust for about 5 minutes before they are starting to degrade and take damage from the heat and vibrations. In the Aerofly the engines won't fail because of this (not yet anyway) but the autopilot won't be able to control engine thrust if you leave it like this.

Reduce To Climb Thrust

  • Slowly move back your throttle input until the flashing LVR CLB message disappears.

Note - If the green text above sais “THR LVR” and “LVR CLB” is flashing in white you have pulled back to far. Advance the thrust again by a bit.

The green text in the top left corner of the display should now show “THR CLB”.

If you look at the thrust levers in the cockpit it is quite clear where you need to position your throttle input. The levers should snap to the climb “CLB” detent and will remain there until we are literally seconds before touch down.

Flap Retraction

Once the airspeed is above the green -S (slat retraction) speed we can safely retract the flaps and slats.

  • Either hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever

or

  • Use your scroll wheel whilst pointing at the lever to retract set the flap lever to the forward position. You can also use the default key assignments for this (Shift + F) or your assigned inputs.

Lean Back And Enjoy

The autopilot is flying now and we have a little break. The next thing we have to do will be just before we start descending. You can change the camera and look around for the time being. This flight isn't very long so don't play around for too long. About 6 minutes after lift off we already have to think about descending again ;-)

Cruise

The autopilot will stop climbing at the selected altitude, which is 12000ft for our flight. The primary flight display should now show in green: “SPEED”, “ALT CRZ” and “NAV” as seen on the screenshot below. You can start with the descent preparations as soon as “ALT CRZ” is shown in green in the second column of the primary flight display.

Top Of Descent Arrow

A white arrow comes into view on the navigation display of the A320. This white arrow marks the point at which the descent starts, the so called top of descent point.

Decrease Selected Altitude

For the upcoming descent we have to select a lower altitude for the autopilot.

  • Move the mouse cursor over the altitude knob of the autopilot. Scroll down to decrease the selected altitude value to 2000 ft. Don't click or press anything at this point.

Start Descent

When the white arrow comes really close to our aircraft symbol you should initiate the descent. Unlike the Boeing 747 for example the Airbus A320 won't descent automatically.

  • Click the altitude knob with the left mouse button to push it in.

Descent

The autopilot will command idle thrust in the descent and tries to match the magenta target speed range and the green altitude target by just pitching up and down. When too high the autopilot flies a bit faster and with the increased drag it can catch up to the profile.

Display The ILS

  • Click the “LS” button in the glareshield to display the ILS localizer and glide slope on the primary flight display.

Note - Depending on how far you are to the runway only the scale for the localizer and glide slope will show up but no magenta needles can be seen. This is normal because the ILS ground stations only have limited range and we can't receive them yet.

Approach

Let the aircraft descent until you reach 5000 to 4000 feet. We are now going to prepare the approach into San Francisco. Luckily for this there is actually barely anything to do in the A320.

At this point the ILS should be automatically tuned and you can see magenta arrows for the ILS localizer and glide slope deflections on the primary flight display in front of you as highlighted on the next screenshot.

Arm ILS Approach

On the autopilot panel click the approach button (“APPR”).

Arm Autobrake

Click the “LO” button on the AUTO BRK (autobrake) panel.

Approach Speed

When passing the magenta “D” point on the map the aircraft will start to decelerate to approach speed. In managed speed mode the speed will be kept high until you select more flaps. Watch the speed target of the autopilot on the primary flight display. It switches to 135 knots on the display. However the auto-thrust system will not allow you to fly slower than the green dot speed at this point. When you extend flaps further than the speed minimum is reduced to -S, -F and finally the approach speed.

Flaps 1

Let the aircraft decelerate to this green dot speed. Make sure that the airspeed is below the two amber bars that mark the maximum airspeed for the next flap. Then select Flaps 1.

  • Press the default key command “F” or any of your assigned control inputs for the flaps

or

  • Point at the flaps lever or hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse to drag the flap lever to the first position

or

  • Use the mouse wheel whilst pointing at the flap lever to increase the flap setting.

Now the speed is allowed to drop to the -S speed (slat retraction speed). If you wanted to retract the flaps for some reason you could do so safely because the speed is kept high enough.

Engage Second Autopilot

  • Click the AP2 button

Localizer Capture

The autopilot will capture the localizer needle and steer us to the runway laterally. The primary flight display will show “LOC *” followed by “LOC” in the top row. No action required.

Flaps 2

When your airspeed matches the -S speed you are slow enough for the next flap setting. As shown for the first stage of flap, use the mouse wheel over the flap lever or use the shortcut “f” or other methods to increase flaps to two.

Gear Down

When the glide slope diamond moves towards the center of the scale the autopilot will capture it because we armed the approach earlier. Now is a good time to select the gear down and help us decrease the speed further and get it to the -F, flap retraction speed in case of go-around.

  • Click the gear lever

or

  • Use the mouse wheel over the gear lever

or

  • Point at the gear lever and hold down the left mouse button and then move the mouse down to drag the lever

or

  • Press any of your assigned control inputs for the gear (default key “g”)

Flaps 3, Flaps Full

When the airspeed dropped to the -F speed you can select the flaps from 2 to full.

Landing Checklist

Let's quickly check that we didn't forget anything. The A320 has a nice built in checklist for this. Check that there are no blue items remaining on that list.

The aircraft is now prepared for a fully automatic landing.

Tip - If you want to return to this state you can exit to the main menu, then open the location dialog and click the yellow aircraft symbol on the map approaching San Francisco Runway 28R.

Flare

The autopilot will start the flare at about 30ft above the runway and will try to touch down gently. At 10 feet you should retard your throttle to idle.

Landed, Disengage Autopilots

The autobrake slows us down and we come to a complete stop on the runway.

  • Press the autopilot disengage button if you have it assigned or click the side stick of to your left to kick out the autopilot.
  • To be able to vacate the runway advance your throttle a bit, this should also disengage the autobrake.

Congratulations, you just completed your first A320 flight and landed in San Francisco!

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aircraft/airbus_a320.txt · Last modified: 2018/07/20 18:04 by jh